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Begin by writing down why you want to be more attractive then be like the kid who asks and asks, "But why? My guess is that you will come to variations on the fundamental themes of chapter 2: feeling loved, respected, and protected. Do you pursue the sexual goodies for their own sake or can you hear the echoes of some more fundamental needs underneath? Hear the need to be cared for, valued, safe, and able to protect yourself, not only from physical threats or privations but from threats to your ego, your self-esteem, and your self-image. Note the wishes and fears that organize not only what you see, and hope to see when you look in the mirror, but your life overall. Now consider what comes to those who are beautiful or rich or powerful or popular. First, look at what you were taught either by your family or childhood and adolescence. What is your personal mythology or fantasies or unspoken assumptions about the rewards of entering these states of "grace. Is this one or that one a sought-after companion because he is rich or did the financial success come at least in part because of the same sociability that makes for a good companion? What really makes one human being love or value or respect or protect another after the initial surface glow fades? In your most honest assessment, would the disappearance of that pimple or wrinkle or bulge really do what you are telling yourself it would do? Only by sabotaging the improvement that you are telling yourself you desperately desire can you keep alive the doomed hope that if only, if only you achieved it your life would be transformed. Pursue beauty and attractiveness as another part of good health, fitness, and well-being. If they are simply a nice way to feel good about yourself, your efforts will be rewarded. If your goals are social, political, financial, or about banishing ancient feelings of not having been loved, respected, or protected, you are setting yourself up for a fall. Here is what resulted when I asked members of a workshop to brainstorm on the disadvantages of physical attractiveness. Members of the opposite sex would assume I was snobby and unapproachable and my social life would suffer. I would attract only those members of the opposite sex who were looking for a nicely packaged piece of meat to enhance their images. This problem can be devastating emotionally, even deadly, but it is physically invisible to the most knowledgeable physicians and most sensitive instruments. They have typically visited a long list of medical practitioners who, whether more or less concerned and sympathetic, have been totally unable to observe the problem much less fix it. Some of these people are in the midst of a schizophrenic or paranoid psychotic illness, but the majority are otherwise in touch with reality. Typically, we have people who are frustrated and depressed, prone to focusing on their body, and quick to see themselves as bad. Some fundamental emotional pain surfaces, and rather than feeling it in their hearts or having it trigger a specific disease, the pain is experienced as a problem with a specific body part. When I first saw Helaine, a thirty-five-year-old-teacher, she was terribly distraught because she thought she had done permanent damage to the skin around her eyes by a poor choice of cosmetics. An impressive list of top dermatologists, allergists, and endocrinologists had sworn to her that this was not so, but she was having real trouble believing them. A bright, shy, badgered child with various medical problems, she had emerged into adulthood as a skilled and valued professional but plagued by severe self-doubt in every other area of life. Her relationships with men were minimal, and it was hard for her to believe that her good female friends really liked her. She had always hoped for marriage and especially children, but they now felt impossible without her main asset.

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Nevertheless, it was because of a single death bat that they gave themselves up in defeat. But when he did so, his head was cut off by the death bat,393 leaving the greater part of his body behind. Then Xbalanque summoned all of the animals-the coati and the peccary, and all the animals both small and great-while it was still dark, early in the morning. He then entreated them for their food: the ability of bats to cut down fruit from trees while in flight associated them in the mind of the ancient Maya with decapitation sacrifice. Bats are often seen painted on ancient Maya vessels as underworld denizens of death, decorated with crossed bones and extruded eyeballs that have their optic nerves still dangling from them. One brought back rotten things, another brought leaves, another brought stones, and yet another brought dirt. Now after many had come, the coati arrived last of all bringing a chilacayote squash. It only had the ability to speak by the time the horizon of the sky began to redden, for it was about to dawn. The coati is consistently associated with females in the text, just as the peccary is associated with males. They are particularly identified as the grandmother and grandfather deities respectively (pp. Akkeren cites a possible ethnographic survival of this association between the coati and gourds. In the Yucatec village of Xcacal, a ceiba tree is cut down in the forest and reerected as a "tree of abundance" in the center of the main plaza. An actor dressed as a coati climbs the tree and scatters squash seeds while tying fruit to its branches (Akkeren 2000, 296). Father Coto lists under the Spanish word Escuridad, that vuch (possum) is the darkness of night just prior to the dawn (Coto 1983, 207-8). In the Tzotzil area, a grandfather possum, called "Old Man Possum," is associated 397 396 395 161 "Fine," replied the Grandfather. Then he instructed a rabbit: "Be there at the head of the ballcourt in the tomato patch,"399 the rabbit was told by Xbalanque. Akkeren compares this passage with the New Years pages of the Dresden Codex in which a possum deity presides over the five days of the Wayeb at the close of the annual cycle. In the Popol Vuh account, however, the possum is associated not with the annual change of the solar year, but "the moment of the new Sun-era" (Akkeren 2000, 290). This is contradicted, however, by lines 4197 and 4217, which read pix (tomatoes, or tomato patch), a reading given by most translators. The confusion may be due to a play on 162 And when it dawned, the both of them were well. But Hunahpu just called out: "Strike402 the head as if it were a rubber ball," they were told. If this is to be read as xetzaqow, it would mean that the Xibalbans "threw out" the ball into play. It is impossible to know which of these alternatives is correct, although it would be helpful to our understanding of how the game was played. They then placed the chilacayote squash on the ballcourt, while the true head of Hunahpu was his once more. While the Xibalbans were out searching for their rubber ball, the twins retrieved it from the tomato patch. And so they began again to play ball, both teams making equal plays until at last Xbalanque struck the chilacayote squash, strewing it all over the ballcourt. They had passed through great affliction, but despite everything that had been done to them, they did not die. This is undoubtedly a reference to the ball, although it is not specified (James Mondloch, personal communication). A play on words is made here between saqiram (scattered) and saqilal (squash seeds). The names of these sages were Descended408 and Ascended: "The lords of Xibalba may inquire of you concerning our death. They are even now putting together their thoughts on the matter, because we have not yet died.

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To insure goat health, a key farmer in the community was selected for training by a Village Animal Health Worker. For the past two years, the Farmer Goat Association has demonstrated the significant impacts and direct improvement of family income from sale of goat meat. As mixed cropContinue on page xix Continued from page xviii and-livestock farmers, the project participants are using goat manure as compost fertilizer to keep soil productive. Duch Sakhorn, his wife and five children are a poor family living in Prek Taong village. The two original placements produced eight goats of which four were passed on to other poor families in the community. We also make compost fertilizer from goat manure for fertilizing our one-half hectare field. Duch Sakhorn said: "I am inspired by the Cornerstone "Gender and Family Focus" because my family members always share household tasks and receive benefits equally. She saves goat and pig manure for fertilizing crops saving her the expense of purchasing chemical fertilizer. Since participating in the project, she has sold three goats for other supplies needed for her family. Although goat production in the community is progressing, the market for goat products is limited. Goat meat and milk are not common at local markets in Cambodia, yet the Farmer Goat Association is sharing ways that goats can help poor families with limited farm land. They encourage the use of goat meat to improve family nutrition, which is low in protein. The Farmer Goat Association of Lvea Em Commune works together to introduce the use of goat meat. The association offers dishes of goat meat for ceremonial or celebration events in the community, as they share information about how goats can help a family have a competitive advantage and generate additional income for the family. Have two class members read the text on the Ruminant Digestive System and be ready to present this to the class using both technical and local names. Get acquainted with one another by telling about the name tag, something about family and farm. Get Everyone Thinking and Talking About the Skit See sample script at end of this learning guide of a theater skit about getting started in raising goats. Add or change conversation to discuss the challenges of raising goats in the community. What were Carmen and Maria 30 minutes Determining the Body Weight of Goats Ask everyone to write down what they think each goat weighs. Review and demonstrate the formula identify heart girth divide into groups, determine weight of goats and compare answers Reflect: What are the benefits to weighing a goat this way? Differences Between Dairy and Meat Goats Have a dairy and meat goat at the front of the class. Understanding the Ruminant Stomach Two class members will present information on the ruminant stomach. I decided yesterday that I want to raise dairy goats so I can send my daughter to school in the fall. Why did you get these skinny, short meat goats instead of some nice tall, Nubians with large udders from Sonia? Julio if I can pasture them in that green grass next to the swamp across the street. By the way, I never see you at the goat class that the extension service is sponsoring. The United States Department of Agriculture has reported that the saturated fat in cooked goat meat is 40 percent less than that of skinless chicken and is low in cholesterol. Goat meat is 50 to 65 percent lower in fat than similarly prepared beef, but has comparable protein content. Protein in our diet builds strong bones, teeth, hair, muscles and antibodies to fight off infection. Known as chevon or cabrito, goat accounts for more than 60 percent of the red meat consumed worldwide. As little as 50 grams of goat meat per day will provide: All the protein needed for children from age 1 to 10 All the protein needed for teens and adults Important vitamins and minerals Some 50 percent more iron than chicken Goat milk and dairy products are also a major source of protein, as well as calcium in the human diet.

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He was an encyclopedia when it came to Xhosa genealogy and told me facts about my father that I had never known. I recall once traveling from Fort Hare to Umtata by train, riding in the African compartment, which were the only seats open to blacks. In my first year, I studied English, anthropology, politics, native administration, and Roman Dutch law. Native administration dealt with the laws relating to Africans and was advisable for anyone who wanted to work in the Native Affairs Department. At that time, a career as a civil servant was a glittering prize for an African, the highest that a black man could aspire to. When, in my second year, Fort Hare introduced an interpreting course taught by a distinguished retired court interpreter, Tyamzashe, I was one of the first students to sign up. Fort Hare could be a rather elitist place and was not without the hazing common to many institutions of higher learning. When I first arrived on campus, I spotted Gamaliel Vabaza across the central courtyard. I greeted him warmly, but his response was exceedingly cool and superior, and he made a disparaging remark about the fact that I would be staying in the freshman dormitory. Vabaza then informed me that he was on the House Committee of my dormitory even though, as a senior, he no longer shared the dormitory. One night, not long after that, a group of us discussed the fact that no residents or freshmen were represented on the House Committee. We decided that we should depart from tradition and elect a House Committee made up of these two groups. We caucused among ourselves and lobbied all the residents of the house, and within weeks elected our own House Committee, defeating the upperclassmen. I myself was one of the organizers and was elected to this newly constituted committee. They held a meeting at which one of them, Rex Tatane, an eloquent English-speaker, said, "This behavior on the part of freshers is unacceptable. How can we seniors be overthrown by a backward fellow from the countryside like Mandela, a fellow who cannot even speak English properly! We freshers now constituted the official House Committee and we assigned the seniors the most unpleasant chores, which was a humiliation for them. Tatane appealed to the warden to overrule us, and in the midst of his speech, broke down and wept. We informed the warden that if he overruled us we would all resign from the House Committee, depriving the committee itself of any integrity or authority. I would not be so lucky in the future in my fight against the authorities at the college. This was due to two factors: I had grown taller and stronger, but more important, Fort Hare was so much smaller than Healdtown, I had less competition. In cross-country competition, training counted more than intrinsic ability, and I could compensate for a lack of natural aptitude with diligence and discipline. Even as a student, I saw many young men who had great natural ability, but who did not have the self-discipline and patience to build on their endowment. I also joined the drama society and acted in a play about Abraham Lincoln that was adapted by my classmate Lincoln Mkentane. Mkentane came from a distinguished Transkeian family, and was another fellow whom I looked up to. This was literally true, as he was the only student at Fort Hare taller than I was. I became a member of the Students Christian Association and taught Bible classes on Sundays in neighboring villages. One of my comrades on these expeditions was a serious young science scholar whom I had met on the soccer field. Oliver lived in Beda Hall, the Anglican hostel, and though I did not have much contact with him at Fort Hare, it was easy to see that he was destined for great things. On Sundays, a group of us would sometimes walk into Alice, to have a meal at one of the restaurants in town. The restaurant was run by whites, and in those days it was inconceivable for a black man to walk in the front door, much less take a meal in the dining hall.

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As there is a great demand for traditional medicine, the Department of Ayurveda and the Research Institute have started to popularize the cultivation of medicinal plants. Four herbal nurseries: Nawinna, Haldummulla, Girandurakotte and Pattipola have been established in three different zones. The cultivation of about 150 other herbs, commonly used by traditional physicians is also encouraged. Extension officers involved in cultivation also educate villagers in proper techniques of growing and harvesting these plant species (Pilipitiya, 1995). The plants used locally in Ayurveda have been botanically described and many of these have been investigated by scientists in universities and research institutes for their biological activities (Kumar, 2000). The Sri Lankan government and World Conservation Union are also working together on a project to conserve important and endangered herbal medicines in the wild. They are working to motivate local communities living near forests to start cultivating important medicinal species and to provide a legal framework for intellectual property rights and conservation of ancient medicinal knowledge (Bakker, 2002). Shops selling indigenous medicines and herbal preparations are common in both rural and urban areas. Many of the plant species used in such preparations are imported from India and other countries. Requirements of space, labour and technical knowledge have however, meant a move to buying prepared medicines from manufacturers. It has resulted in the development of a new industry to produce pharmaceutical herbal products for the domestic market. Herbal drugs are being produced by several government (such as the Ayurvedic Drug Corporation of Sri Lanka) and private (Link Natural Products (Pvt) 181 Ltd) organizations. A large number of people are involved in the collection, processing and storage of medicinal plant raw materials but the level of employment in this sector is not known as collection is not done on a full-time basis and hence is not recorded. Most families living close to the forests collect medicinal plants mainly for their own consumption with very few families traditionally involved in their collection for commercial purposes. There are 10 companies involved in growing, processing and exporting herbs and herbal preparations in Sri Lanka (Anonymous, 2004). In 1998, the production values of cardamom, cinnamon leaf oil, cinnamon quills, citronella, cloves, nutmeg and pepper were 60, 150, 10813, 102, 1744, 1257 and 6776 tonnes respectively (Anonymous, 2004). ProblemsandConstraints Unsustainable harvesting methods threaten many of the valuable medicinal and aromatic plant species in the country. Lack of cultivation of these species, lack of scientific research mainly because of the limitations of facilities and equipment for the evaluation of medicinal plant material, lack of raw material and market regulations, and illegal trade are the main problems in the exploitation of the full potential of medicinal and aromatic plant resources in the country. Continued 183 Table 1 continued Botanicalname Family Fabaceae Dilleniaceae Dioscoreaceae Zingiberaceae Asteraceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Convolvulaceae Moraceae Moraceae Clusiaceae Clusiaceae Colchicaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Apocynaceae Malvaceae Hydrophyllaceae Clusiaceae Apocynaceae Poaceae Oleaceae Acanthaceae Anacardiaceae Leeaceae Lauraceae Lycopodiaceae Malvaceae Fabaceae Rubiaceae Moringaceae Meliaceae Rutaceae Myristicaceae Nepenthaceae Convolvulaceae Bignoniaceae Arecaceae Desmodium pulchellum (L. Phoenix zeylanica Trimen Continued 184 Table 1 continued Botanicalname Family Euphorbiaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Lamiaceae Fabaceae Araceae Fabaceae Ericaceae Acanthaceae Santalaceae Sapindaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Loganiaceae Myrtaceae Combretaceae Combretaceae Menispermaceae Rutaceae Celtidaceae Cucurbitaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Lamiaceae Meliaceae Solanaceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Phyllanthus emblica L. It is a region of high plateaus and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan) and treeless, grassy plains. Much of the land is too dry or rugged for farming and the majority of people earn their living by herding livestock. A large number of plant species including medicinal plants originated in this region. The plant biodiversity of the region could be of value to provide new species of medicinal plants and compounds for the traditional herbal drugs and pharmaceutical industry of Central Asia as well as other regions of the world (Zaurov, et al. It is bounded on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan and on the west by the Caspian Sea and Russia. It covers an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres and only a small part of the area is under forest, which is located mainly in the northern regions. The forests are sources of valuable medicinal and aromatic plants along with other non-wood forest products. The medicinal plants are used in the preparation of various traditional remedies, which are an important part of daily life. TraditionalMedicineSystems Traditional medicine has been used in Kazakhstan for a long time.

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Because of my recent illness and my history of high blood pressure, I had been put on a strict low-cholesterol diet. I could not remember the last time I had tasted bacon and eggs, and I was ravenous. Just as I was about to take a delicious forkful of egg, Major Marais said, "No, Mandela, that is against the orders of your physician," and he reached over to take the tray. While I was still at the clinic Coetsee said he wanted to put me in a situation that was halfway between confinement and freedom. While he did not spell out what this meant, I had a notion of what he was talking about, and I merely nodded. In the meantime, the clinic was extremely comfortable and for the first time I actually enjoyed a hospital convalescence. The prison authorities refused permission for me to go, which nettled the nurses, and as a result, they decided to hold their party in my room, insisting they could not have their party without me. That night, a dozen or so of these young ladies in party frocks descended on my room with cake and punch and gifts. The guards seemed befuddled, but they could hardly consider these vivacious young girls a security risk. In fact, when one of the guards attempted to prevent some of the nurses from entering my room, I jestingly accused him of being jealous of an old man receiving so much attention from such beautiful young ladies. On the evening of December 9, Major Marais came into my room, and told me to prepare myself to leave. We left in a rush, and after about an hour on the road we entered a prison whose name I recognized: Victor Verster. We drove through the entire length of the prison, and then along a winding dirt road through a rather wild, wooded area at the rear of the property. At the end of the road we came to an isolated, whitewashed one-story cottage set behind a concrete wall and shaded by tall fir trees. I was ushered into the house by Major Marais and found a spacious lounge, next to a large kitchen, with an even larger bedroom at the back of the house. It had not been cleaned or swept before my arrival, and the bedroom and living room were teeming with all kinds of exotic insects, centipedes, monkey spiders, and the like, some of which I had never seen before. That night, I swept the insects off my bed and windowsill and slept extremely well in what was to be my new home. The next morning I surveyed my new abode and discovered a swimming pool in the backyard, and two smaller bedrooms. The only thing spoiling the idyllic picture was that the walls were topped with razor wire, and there were guards at the entrance to the house. That afternoon I was visited by Kobie Coetsee, who brought a case of Cape wine as a housewarming gift. The irony of a jailer bringing his prisoner such a gift was not lost on either of us. He surveyed the house himself, and the only thing he recommended was that the walls outside the house be raised - for my privacy, he said. He told me that the cottage at Victor Verster would be my last home before becoming a free man. The reason behind this move, he said, was that I should have a place where I could hold discussions in privacy and comfort. I could go to sleep and wake up as I pleased, swim whenever I wanted, eat when I was hungry - all were delicious sensations. Simply to be able to go outside during the day and take a walk when I desired was a moment of private glory. The prison service provided me with a cook, Warrant Officer Swart, a tall, quiet Afrikaner who had once been a warder on Robben Island. I did not remember him, but he said he sometimes drove us to the quarry and purposely steered the truck over bumps to give us a rocky ride. He was a decent, sweet-tempered fellow without any prejudice and he became like a younger brother to me. He arrived at seven in the morning and left at four, and would make my breakfast, lunch, and dinner. He was a lovely cook, and when he went home at four, he would leave me supper to heat up in the microwave oven, a device that was new to me. Warrant Officer Swart baked bread, made home-brewed ginger beer and assorted other delicacies.

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In Section 125 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011, Congress requested that a federally funded research and development center conduct a study of lightening body armor. Scott Fish, Army Chief Scientist, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology. This document should interest those involved with lightening body armor and the combat loads of dismounted soldiers and marines. The body armor is heavy, however, constituting approximately 30 percent of the total load that is carried into combat by a dismounted soldier or marine. The study focus is on soldier protection from ballistic threats-both small arms fire and fragmenting munitions. The study concentrates on reducing the weight of the torso armor, since most of the body armor weight is in protecting the torso area of the body. Protection of the torso area is provided using soft body armor vests with ceramic plate inserts, and the ceramic plates are heavy. The weight range of a full-up torso body armor set is 27 to 38 pounds for small to extra-large sizes. First, the ceramic plates cannot be penetrated when struck by multiple ballistic rounds in a well-defined shot pattern. Second, the backface deformation (a surrogate measure of blunt force trauma) that occurs when the bullet impacts the ceramic plate must be no greater than 44 mm, as measured by indentation depth in the test material backing the plate. Additional mathematical modeling predicted that a backface deformation of 44 mm or less would result in a maximum 10 percent probability of lethality. Comparison of Approaches the four approaches to lighten body armor-refining requirements, using modular configurations, improving testing, and improving materials-are compared in Figure S. In some respects, refining requirements is the most difficult approach to implement: Changing the processes necessary to meet requirements is not very difficult, but the decision to change requirements in the first place is. A change from the currently accepted threat round that the body armor must be capable of stopping to a less capable round (in terms of muzzle velocity, bullet type, or caliber) would have serious consequences if the change were later shown to be unwarranted and additional lethal casualties result. The other two approaches we considered-improving testing and improving materials-involve some difficult choices but should not lead to catastrophic outcomes. Each of the approaches requires Army and broader DoD coordination before it can be implemented. Both refining of requirements and using the modular body armor approach require high-level coordination because of the potential risk. With regard to estimated weight reductions, greater increases in reduction may be possible if some of the approaches are considered synergistically. For example, a larger weight loss should be achieved if the benefits derived from reduced requirements are combined with the benefits gained from improved testing coupled with modular configurations. A 10 percent reduction in weight appears to be about the most that is realistic in the short term if overall protection is to remain constant. A longer-term solution to reducing body armor weight likely involves the development and integration of new materials. However, the technology is currently too immature to make reliable estimates about the weight and protective effectiveness of new materials. There are some nonmaterial solutions available that can result in a greater than 20 percent weight reduction. Also, a large inventory of body armor vests and plates must always be available to provide the various plates and vests in all sizes to forward to combat areas. A combination of material and nonmaterial approaches should result in greater weight reduction. For example, if the plates are over-designed for the threat, then the requirements and testing procedures could be changed, resulting in thinner and lighter-weight plates. Further reductions in weight will require a significant investment of money and time. For example, variable-thickness plates could be constructed that provide greater protection over the chest portion of the torso than over the abdomen portion. However, variable-thickness plates would involve changing the manufacturing process and the testing procedures. Answers to the eight issues specifically raised by Section 125 are presented in the main body of the document. Currently, products that meet the threshold criteria are selected solely on a cost basis by the Defense Logistics Agency, so prospective producers have no incentive to improve body armor performance beyond the threshold.


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Learning can also be described as changes in behavior that occur as the result of practice or experiences (Dewsbury 1978). When humans dictate that practice, the E Training process is called training (Mellen and Ellis 1996). Given this very broad definition, virtually every direct and indirect interaction that handlers have with their elephants can be viewed as a form of training. Skinner) suggested that the mechanisms of learning were the same in all animals ("learning is learning"). However, as comparative psychologists and ethologists, led by Keller and Marion Breeland, studied learning throughout the 20th century in a broad range of species, Six Flags Marine World Training-for husbandry procedures, for enrichment, and for exercise-is critical to the success of an elephant program. Training 21 Six Flags Marine World Log work can be a good training exercise, using both classical and operant conditioning to train the behavior. In order to select the most effective and appropriate techniques to train (shape) elephant behavior, it is necessary to consider three things: 1. For example, it may make more sense to ask an arboreal animal to position itself or "station" on a perch off the ground. This may be simplistic, but it makes no sense to try to train an elephant to jump. For example, a captive-born elephant raised in close contact with humans may be trained substantially differently than a wild-caught elephant brought in as an adult. This, at some point, generally ceases as the elephant gains maturity and develops into an elephant whose primary role is breeding (Sevenich, MacPhee, and Mellen 2002). Learning, or conditioning, for all animals (including humans) is generally described as either classical or operant. In very simple terms, classical conditioning is the process through which a stimulus that formerly had no effect on a particular reflex acquires the power to elicit that reflex. In animal training, classical conditioning is commonly used to establish a bridge (or bridging stimulus). A bridge is a term for the association between the stimulus, such as a whistle, clicker, or the word "good," and a tangible reward, a primary reinforcer, such as food. The bridge is a stimulus that pinpoints in time the precise moment of a desired behavior and bridges the gap in time between that point and when the animal may receive reinforcement. Creating a bridge is very important as often times it is very difficult to present the actual reinforcment at the correct time in order to reinforce the desired behavior. The bridge is a secondary or conditioned reinforcer because it acquires 22 Elephant Husbandry Resource Guide its effectiveness through a history of being paired with primary reinforcement. Therefore, a very simple example of classical conditioning is an elephant learning to associate the sound of a clicker with food. Initially, the stimulus is meaningless, but when paired with the food it will become a reinforcer itself over time. When the bridge is correctly conditioned, it is used to reinforce correct behavior. At the same time, overuse of a bridge or reinforcement will diminish its effectiveness by desensitizing the elephant to its use. Operant conditioning (also known as instrumental conditioning) occurs when the frequency of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior. The fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that behavior is determined by its consequences. In other words, when the consequences that immediately follow a behavior are something that the animal seeks to encounter (reinforcement), the likelihood of that behavior being repeated increases. For example, the elephant enters a holding area and the elephant receives a food reinforcement. After making this association, the elephant is more likely to enter the holding area at its next opportunity. Conversely, when the consequences following a behavior are some- thing that the animal seeks to avoid (punishment), the likelihood of the behavior being repeated decreases. The elephant that reaches for a tree limb protected by "hot wire" (see Tools and Equipment, p. This type of learning is called operant because the animal "operates" on its environment. It should be understood that all animals learn through a combination of reinforcement and punishment. When the lion catches the gazelle, the lion has been reinforced and the gazelle punished.


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