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Police must be certain their warrant is Educating Young People about the Constitution correct and complete, as the Court ruled in Groh v. Ramirez (2004) that an incorrectly wriSen search warrant could also lead to evidence being excluded from trial. The text of the Fourth Amendment does not require it, and critics argue there are others ways to discourage police from conducting illegal searches that do not threaten public safety by seSing guilty people free. Other critics claim the rule does not actually stop officers from conducting illegal searches because they face no personal punishment. Supporters tend to agree with the Court that allowing the government to punish people using evidence it obtained in violation of the law would be unjust and violate the principle of due process. Like the warrant requirement of the Fourth Amendment, however, the Exclusionary Rule is not absolute, according to the Court. If the police can prove the evidence would surely have been found through legal means, it may be presented in court. In many cases, these developments have forced citizens and the Court to wrestle with finding the constitutional balance of liberty and security. He would often use a pay-phone near his apartment to place his bets, so police aSached a listening device to the outside of the phone booth to record his conversations. He challenged the search on the basis that his conversation, though in a public location, was private and protected by the Fourth Amendment. United States (1967), reasoning that the Fourth Amendment protected "people, not places," and that Kar had a "reasonable expectation of privacy" that was protected from an unreasonable government search. They used a heat- sensing device to look for the telltale signs of heat lamps that are commonly used to grow the illegal plants. The Court found that the police actions were an illegal search, as the government "use[d] a device. Antoine Jones was suspected of possessing and Educating Young People about the Constitution dealing drugs. In mapping his whereabouts, along with other evidence, police were able to tie Jones to locations where drug transactions were known to occur. The Court further argued that while Jones drove on public streets, he did so with a "reasonable expectation" of privacy. The Fourth Amendment does protect you in school, but at a much lower threshold than would be the case for adults in the "real world. The court held that school officials only needed "reasonable suspicion" to search students. Reading (2009), the Court ruled that while schools have search authority to root out contraband, the search cannot be "excessively intrusive," in light of the age and sex of the student, and the nature of the items being searched for. Drug tests can also be a kind of "search," and the Supreme Court has weighed in on the use of them by public schools. Acton, the Court ruled that schools may force athletes to submit to random drug tests. Earls (2002), students fought a school rule that required drug testing for all extra-curricular activities, not just sports. While technologies and threats to security change, the inalienable rights protected by the Constitution belong to us by nature. This means it will always be important to understand the protections in our Bill of Rights, and the reasons for them. How has the Supreme Court applied the Fourth Amendment to public school officials? The principle of due process, like other constitutional principles, is a means to an end. You may have noticed that the Supreme Court has carved out a lot of exceptions to the requirements of the Fourth Amendment. Do you think the Court has allowed government officials (including public school administrators) too much leeway in conducting searches? Is the Fourth Amendment today being enforced in ways its text commands, and in ways the Founders would agree with? In general, "probable cause" means the facts of a given situation would convince a reasonable person that a crime has been, or is being, commiSed. Item/location searched without a warrant Should police be able to use this evidence against her? Information from her Facebook page, including status updates and pictures with locations and other people tagged.

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Space flight evidence Occurrence of Sleep Loss and Fatigue in Space Flight Space flight research indicates that, overall, sleep quantity and quality in astronauts are markedly reduced in comparison to terrestrial sleep quantity. Space Flight Sleep Studies Summary and Category of Evidence Average Hours of Sleep Subjects (N) Category of Evidence Source Missions Measurement Tool Barger and Czeisler, preliminary unpublished data Dijk et al. Sleep was most reduced during the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Fatigue, and Work Overload 95 Chapter 3 Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions first and last days of a mission (total 5. Many crew members reported fewer than 5 hours sleep on some nights, and some crew members slept 2 hours or less (Santy et al. This limitation is due to the nature of space flight, which requires that researchers evaluate a small number of subjects, rendering it practically impossible to truly replicate a Category I when astronauts are on orbit. Data are collected at 90 days before launch for 2 weeks (to establish a baseline), from 11 days before launch until launch, in flight (as soon as possible on orbit until the last flight day), and, after landing, for 7 more days. Preliminary analysis, using 23 subjects over nine shuttle missions, estimated that the average total nightly sleep duration (estimated with actigraphy) was 5. These findings confirm previous studies that show an incidence of reduced sleep quantity in space. Further preliminary analysis shows that sleep quantity may be reduced even more prior to undergoing critical mission operations. As previously discussed, ground-based studies have consistently reported performance impairments under conditions of acute or chronic reduced sleep. Objective feedback on sleep quantity is important information to provide to flight surgeons and astronauts who are preparing to engage in critical mission activities; this will be particularly true for the more autonomous Exploration missions. Currently, actigraphy data for some missions are being shared among the researcher, the flight surgeon, and the crew member; the flight surgeons and astronauts, who have commented on the benefit of having this information available, support transitioning the Actiwatch (figure 3-4) protocol to an operational tool (flight surgeons G Beven and S Johnston, personal communication, 2008). A compelling testimony of sleep disturbances in flight is the degree to which sleep medications are used. Image of an Actiwatch activity monitor that is shown next to a ruler to demonstrate the size of the Actiwatch. Cosmonaut Vladimir Dezhurov of Rosaviakosmos, Expedition 3 flight engineer, works on a laptop computer in the temporary sleep station in the U. Recent unpublished data from shuttle missions (Barger and Czeisler, 2008) also show a trend of regular use of medication to promote sleep. Of the first 32 crew members studied during 11 missions, 26 (81%) reported taking a sleep-promoting medication in flight. Crew members who used sleep medications reported taking them on approximately half the nights that data were collected aboard the space shuttle; two doses of sleep medication were taken on 7% of the nights when medication was used. The frequent use of sleep medication in flight serves as a strong indication that sleep is disturbed for some crew members. Risk of Performance Errors Due to Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Fatigue, and Work Overload 97 Chapter 3 Human Health and Performance Risks of Space Exploration Missions Subjective sleep quality diminished in flight in both the Gundel et al. This discrepancy suggests that not only is sleep quantity reduced during space flight, but also that the restorative component of sleep may be disrupted in space, which may further increase the likelihood that waking neurobehavioral performance deficits will occur (Bonnet et al. Individual, Physiological, and Environmental Factors that Contribute to Sleep Loss and Fatigue During Space Flight Various factors influence the extent to which individuals experience sleep loss and fatigue in space. Differences exist among subjects when experiencing the deleterious effects resulting from inadequate sleep. Some may need less sleep and/or be more resistant to the effects of sleep loss on brain functions. Laboratory and field studies have found this to be the case for 10% to 30% of individuals when sleep loss is mild to moderate (Van Dongen et al. For the majority of astronauts, however, sleep loss and fatigue remain a relevant issue, and self-report of alertness has been shown to be inaccurate under conditions of sleep loss (see above), even in motivated and trained individuals. The degree to which noise and environmental disturbances impact sleep during space flight missions remains to be determined. In particular, these findings suggest that the amount and quality of in-flight sleep is reduced in comparison to terrestrial sleep behavior for multiple reasons. Data from 23 astronauts who completed 274 sleep logs on nine shuttle flights indicate that in 163 (59%) of these logs, sleep was recorded as having been disturbed on the previous night.

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After documentation at the scene, the evidence is preserved and possibly enhanced using techniques such as those based on chemistry. Although some analysis of impression evidence might begin at the scene, the comparison of scene evidence to known exemplars occurs in the laboratory. The educational background of forensic scientists who examine shoeprints and tire track impressions runs the gamut from a high school diploma to scientists with Ph. Analyses the goal of impression evidence analysis is to identify a specific source of the impression, and the analytical process that this follows generally is an accepted sequence: identifying the class (group) characteristics of the evidence, followed by locating and comparing individual, identifying (also termed accidental or random) characteristics. Although defined similarly by various authors, Bodziak describes footwear class characteristics as "an intentional or unavoidable characteristic that repeats during the manufacturing process and is shared by one or more other shoes. That latter step-which is not always possible-requires comparison of the individual identifying characteristics on the impression evidence with those on a shoe or tire that is suspected of leaving the impression. These individual characteristics occur during the normal use of an item, sometimes called wear and tear,44 and are created by "random, uncontrolled processes. Following analysis of the impression, an identification is determined or ruled out according to the number of individual characteristics the evidence has in common with the suspected source. But there is no defined threshold that must be surpassed, nor are there any studies that associate the number of matching characteristics with the probability that the impressions were made by a common source. It is generally accepted that the specific number of characteristics needed to assign a definite positive identification depends on the quality and quantity of these accidental characteristics and the criteria established by individual laboratories. Survey of the conclusions drawn of similar footwear cases in various crime laboratories. This course of study does not require an understanding of the scientific basis of the examinations, and it does not recommend the use of a scientific method. Also, there is no provision or recommendation for proficiency testing or continuing education. Generally, shoeprint and tire track examiners prefer nonstatistical language to report or to testify to the result of their findings. Terms such as "positive identification" and "nonidentification" can be used to indicate an identification or nonidentification, respectively, and "nonconclusive" would indicate situations in which the analysis falls short of either of the other two. Accidental, identifying characteristics were purposely put onto the sole of new shoes, and examiners were asked to make a statement concerning the strength of matches. The results of the survey concluded that there were considerable differences in the conclusions reached by different laboratories examining identical cases. Guide for Minimum Qualifications and Training for a Forensic Footwear and/or Tire Tread Examiner. Summary Assessment the scientific basis for the evaluation of impression evidence is that mass-produced items. At the least, class characteristics can be identified, and with sufficiently distinctive patterns of wear, one might hope for specific individualization. However, there is no consensus regarding the number of individual characteristics needed to make a positive identification, and the committee is not aware of any data about the variability of class or individual characteristics or about the validity or reliability of the method. Without such population studies, it is impossible to assess the number of characteristics that must match in order to have any particular degree of confidence about the source of the impression. Experts in impression evidence will argue that they accumulate a sense of those probabilities through experience, which may be true. However, it is difficult to avoid biases in experience-based judgments, especially in the absence of a feedback mechanism to correct an erroneous judgment. For example, a European survey found that 42 laboratories conducted 28,093 shoeprint examinations and 41 laboratories conducted 591 tire track examinations, but only 14 laboratories conducted a total of 21 lip print examinations and 17 laboratories conducted a total of 100 ear print examinations. The community simply does not have enough data about the natural variability of those less frequent impressions, absent the presence of a clear deformity or scar, to infer whether the observed degree of similarity is significant. Most of the research in the field is conducted in forensic laboratories, with the results published in trade journals, such as the Journal of Forensic Identification. Such toolmarks may occur in the commission of a crime when an instrument such as a screwdriver, crowbar, or wire cutter is used or when the internal parts of a firearm make contact with the brass and lead that comprise ammunition.

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If the caregiver is unable or refuses to accept custody of the infant, Child Protective Services shall be notified. The dorms support the practice of religious faith in a group setting and provide the tools needed for improved institutional adjustment and successful reentry into the community. An additional 6 months is spent in aftercare (after release from prison) to assist with successful reintegration into society. Voyager Voyager offers a faith-based, non-denominational curriculum that includes life skills for developing self-esteem, being responsible for actions, understanding values, overcoming bad habits, managing emotions, and building and maintaining healthy relationships. The program varies from 3 to 12 months and is dependent upon available programming space. Offenders shall volunteer for Voyager and be in a custody that does not preclude participation in programmatic activities. College Courses All college expenses incurred by the offender during incarceration shall either be paid at registration or upon release, per legislative requirement effective September 1995. The state shall provide the cost of two academic courses each semester, which shall be reimbursed to the state by the offender after release as a condition of parole. These costs shall be paid by the offender at registration from personal funds or by other financial aid arrangements between the offender and the college or university. Academic courses are available on a wide variety of units in all areas of the state. University courses are available on selected units with limited major areas of study. College Technical Courses the state shall provide the initial cost of two college level vocational courses, to be reimbursed to the state by the offender after release as a condition of parole. Additional courses may be taken, on a space-available basis, at the expense of the offender. Offenders with the least amount of time remaining on his/her sentence receive priority placement in the requested course. Offenders housed on a unit that does not offer the vocational training course for which they qualify shall be placed on a waiting list. An offender may participate in two college-level vocational courses while incarcerated. Only one college vocational course may be taken while the offender is outside of 5 years of a projected release or maximum expiration date. Religious Services Religious services and support are provided to all interested offenders. Volunteer groups also come into the prison to sing, preach, teach, and to provide other help. If an offender is sick, in administrative segregation or solitary, he may have a chaplain or volunteer visit. Participants may be required to attend sex offender treatment for the duration of their supervision after release. Combined, these yield a "dynamic" level which takes into account factors such as education and treatment, allowing for a variable risk level. Civil Commitment of Sexually Violent Predators In 1999, the Texas Legislature passed a law that provides for the civil commitment of sexually violent predators. The law requires that if an offender has two or more convictions for one of the following sex offenses, he should be referred for civil commitment consideration: aggravated sexual assault, sexual assault, indecency with a child by contact, aggravated kidnapping with the intent to commit a sex offense, or burglary of a habitation with the intent to commit a sex offense. In addition, the attempt, conspiracy, or solicitation to commit one of these offenses is a qualifying offense. Similar offenses committed in other states, under federal law or the Uniform Code of Military Justice also qualify, as do adjudications of delinquency in juvenile court for these types of offenses. Successfully completed probations or deferred adjudications count as final convictions for purposes of civil commitment. The Texas civil commitment process is based on outpatient treatment and supervision. The team determines whether the offender has been convicted of two qualifying offenses and whether the offender is likely to commit a sexually violent offense after release or discharge.

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Any type of sexual advancement by any staff member directed toward any offender is a strict violation of policy. Similarly, it is a violation of the rules for offenders to direct advances towards correctional officers or staff. Correctional officers or staff may not solicit offenders in any way for any type of sexual favors. This includes any conversation(s) that might lead to sexual involvement or relationship of a personal nature. In the event that an offender feels he is being pressured for sexual favors or to violate any institutional rule, the offender shall refuse to do the prohibited act and either: a. Contact the Office of the Inspector General; Contact any staff member with whom he feels comfortable enough to let them know and request their help; or Write a family member and urge the family member to call the Ombudsman Office immediately. Sexual abuse includes sexual contact with an offender by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer or by another offender. This means, all allegations of sexual abuse and sexual harassment whether it is perpetrated by a staff member or another offender shall be thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this Act is to reduce the incidence of sexual abuse by establishing national standards with the goal of eliminating sexual abuse within all confinement facilities across the nation. Sexual abuse (offender-on-offender) includes any of the following acts performed on an offender by another offender, if the victim does not consent, is coerced into such act by overt or implied threats of violence, or is unable to consent or refuse: a. Contact between the penis and vulva or the penis and anus, including penetration, however slight; Contact between the mouth and the penis, vulva, or anus; Penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person, however slight, by a hand, finger, object, or other instruments; and Any other intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or the buttocks of another person, excluding contact that was incidental to a physical altercation. Sexual abuse (staff-on-offender) includes any of the following acts performed on an offender by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer with or without the consent of the offender: a. Contact between the mouth and penis, vulva, or anus; Contact between the mouth and any body part where the staff member, contractor, or volunteer has the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify desire; Penetration of the anal or genital opening, however slight, by a hand, finger, object, or other instrument, that is unrelated to official duties or where the staff member, contractor, or volunteer has the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire; Any attempt, threat, or request by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer to engage in the activities described above; and Any display by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer of his or her uncovered genitalia, buttocks, or breast in the presence of an offender. Employees found in violation of sexual abuse are subject to disciplinary action and/or criminal prosecution. Any repeated and unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or verbal comments, gestures, or actions of a derogatory or offensive sexual nature by one offender directed at another; and Any repeated verbal comments or gestures of a sexual nature to an offender by a staff member, contractor, or volunteer, including demeaning references to gender, sexually suggestive or derogatory comments about body or clothing, or obscene language or gestures. On occasion, male offenders shall be supervised by female correctional officers, and female offenders shall be supervised by male correctional officers. Correctional officers of the opposite gender shall announce their presence before entering a housing area at the beginning of their shift and anytime the gender of supervision changes from same gender, to mixed ­or opposite gender supervision. Be aware that once the announcement is made, it shall not be repeated during the course of the shift. Any inappropriate behavior or comments directed toward staff of either gender shall be subject to disciplinary action. Additionally, the Plan outlines the process of addressing the needs of offenders following an allegation. One of the strategies involved in the Program includes educating offenders to raise awareness regarding the Program and provide direction on methods to prevent and report incidents of sexual abuse or sexual harassment. Offenders are provided with multiple methods to report sexual abuse, sexual harassment and other acts of aggression that may pose a significant threat to your safety. Staff is also instructed to maintain confidentiality by discussing reports with officials on a need to know basis. You may report allegations verbally or in writing, but keep in mind time is of the essence when reporting sexual abuse. A report made in good faith based upon a reasonable belief that the alleged conduct did occur does not constitute lying for the purpose of disciplinary action even if the investigation does not establish evidence sufficient to substantiate (prove the incident occurred) the allegation. However, if investigation reveals that an offender knew that the information was false, and made the allegation intentionally or with malice, he or she shall be subject to disciplinary action. Sexual Abuse Prevention Strategies the only way that sexual abuse can be eliminated is when a sexual abuse predator chooses not to abuse. However, you can reduce the risk of being victimized by keeping the following guidelines in mind: 1.

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Much of the initial impetus for single-cell tissue sequencing has come from cancer research, where cell lineage and detection of residual disease is of paramount importance. This spatial context is typically lost in single-cell sequencing experiments, but new methods13,14 and analysis algorithms15 are combining measurements of single-cell gene expression with spatial localization within tissues. This review highlights recent publications demonstrating how Illumina technology is being used in single-cell sequencing applications and techniques. An overview of recent publications featuring Illumina tecnology 5 the same gene can be expressed at different levels, and influenced by different control mechanisms, in different cell types within the same tissue. As a result, advanced tumors may contain a number of unique subclones16,17,18 with different sets of mutations, different histopathology, and different responses to therapy. Single-cell sequencing and tumorigenesis: improved understanding of tumor evolution and metastasis. Intratumor heterogeneity: the progressive accumulation of somatic mutations results in a heterogeneous polyclonal tumor, in which different clones may respond differently to treatment. An overview of recent publications featuring Illumina tecnology 7 Reviews Baslan T and Hicks J. Single-cell transcriptomic analyses identified heterogeneous as well as conserved gene expression signatures for subtype-specific breast cancer cells. In addition to breast cancer cells, the authors identified gene expression signatures for T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Individual T cells could be classified as activated or exhausted, suggesting that immune cell interactions within tumors are dynamic and distinct. These data suggest that individual breast cancer tumor microenvironments contain cells with unique patterns of gene expression, and that tumor subtypes are shaped by tumor cells as well as immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Single-cell transcriptomics uncovers distinct molecular signatures of stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. In addition, cancer stem cells can be resistant to chemotherapy and can persist during remission. Because cancer stem cells are vastly outnumbered by tissue cells and are difficult to isolate, genetically characterizing them has been challenging. Innate Immune Landscape in Early Lung Adenocarcinoma by Paired Single-Cell Analyses. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells are host immune cells that present tumor-associated antigens to host T cells, and they contribute to tumor progression and treatment response. However, a detailed understanding of how the immune landscape develops in response to tumor cues is currently lacking. Centrosome Amplification Is Sufficient to Promote Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in Mammals. In a normal cell, a centrosome is copied only once per cell cycle, with one copy passed on to the daughter cells during mitosis. In cancer cells, however, extra centrosomes are common; they correlate with poor prognosis and abnormal chromosome number, or aneuploidy. It is currently unclear whether extra centrosomes cause cancer or simply arise due to tumorigenesis. To address this question, the authors created transgenic mice overexpressing Plk4, a gene that regulates centrosome duplication. These transgenic mice have a persistent increase in centrosome number in cells from numerous tissues. The authors then karyotyped 99 individual epidermal cells by single-cell genomic copy-number analysis using the HiSeq 2500 System. Their data demonstrated that centrosome amplification was sufficient to promote chromosome segregation errors and aneuploidy in transgenic mouse cells. Further, starting at just 36 weeks, the Plk4 transgenic mice developed spontaneous aneuploid tumors. Taken together, the data suggest that centrosome amplification is sufficient to drive aneuploidy and cancer formation in mice. Landscape of Infiltrating T Cells in Liver Cancer Revealed by SingleCell Sequencing. They found that malignant cells within the same tumor displayed transcriptional heterogeneity associated with cell cycle, spatial context, and drug resistance. Glioblastoma tumors have mutations in a number of druggable pathways, but current targeted therapies have proven ineffective due to rapid and universal drug resistance.

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In the interest of disclosure, we note that Tracie Keesee also serves as a commander in the Denver Police Department. We thank Chief Gerald Whitman, the Denver Police Department, Calibre Press, the Denver Department of Motor Vehicles, and (especially) the many officers of the Denver Police Department and police departments around the country for their assistance, patience, and participation. Deffenbacher for their invaluable assistance with this research and Myron Rothbart for his many helpful comments. Although social psychologists have only recently addressed this question, the impact of suspect ethnicity on police shootings has long been the focus of researchers in other fields of study, particularly sociology, political science, and law enforce- ment. Investigators have consistently found evidence that police use greater force, including lethal force, with minority suspects than with White suspects. Data from the Department of Justice (2001), itself, indicate that Black suspects are approximately five times more likely than White suspects, per capita, to die at the hands of a police officer. One of the most detrimental consequences of police shootings is the upheaval they can provoke. Shootings of a minority suspect may engender a sense of mistrust and victimization among com- munity members and give rise to conflict between the community and police. Weitzer and Tuch (2004) present evidence that mem- bers of ethnic minorities often feel that they are mistreated by the police, even after statistically controlling for factors like personal and vicarious experiences with the law, exposure to the media, and neighborhood disadvantage (see also Sunshine & Tyler, 2003). The implication is that the police are racist and that officers use excessive force with minority suspects. In response, Black people may engage in more belligerent behavior, including "talking back" to police officers, and-in a vicious cycle-this belligerence may prompt more severe use of force by police (Reisig, McCluskey, 10. It is equally important to note that, as a consequence of this tension, officers who see their job as pro- tecting the community may feel, and to some extent may actually be, thwarted in their efforts to perform their duty. Officer-involved shootings, then, can have severe consequences, not just for the officers and suspects involved, but for the com- munity at large as well. It is of paramount importance to under- stand and explain why minority suspects are disproportionately likely to be shot. Others argue that the racial discrepancy in officer-involved shootings stems from differential minority involvement in criminal activity (Department of Justice, 2001; Inn et al. A primary strength of the sociological approach is that it examines police use of force directly and in its true context. They thus maintain the richness and complexity of the real world when analyzing relationships between officer-involved shootings and variables like race or community disadvantage. At the same time, the preexisting correlations among these variables confound ef- forts to assess their independent effects. For example, the relation- ship between the proportion of Black citizens in a community and perceptions of disorder (Sampson & Raudenbush, 2004) is inex- tricably tied to, and cannot be fully separated from, racial discrepancies in officer-involved shootings (Terrill & Reisig, 2003). For this reason, a social psychological analysis of the problem with experimental methods is useful not to replace but rather to supplement research of a more naturalistic sort. The results of some 20 studies with this task, with a variety of parameters and manipulations, consistently show racial bias in both the speed and accuracy with which such decisions can be made. The bulk of this research has been conducted with college students, but the effect has been replicated with community samples of both White and Black participants, and conceptually similar effects have been obtained by a number of other labs (Amodio et al. These findings, along with reports from sociological and related literatures, clearly indicate that race can play an important role in decisions about the danger or threat posed by a particular person. In our literature review, we discovered only two papers that examine officers in experimental studies of racial bias. Eberhardt, Goff, Purdie, and Davies (2004) found that priming the concept of crime served to orient attention to Black (more than White) faces. Plant and Peruche (2005) examined training effects among officers on a task where images of White and Black men appeared with a gun or nongun object superimposed on the face. They found that officers showed racial bias in their errors during the first phase of the study. These studies suggest that officers, like under- graduates, show racial biases in the processing of crime-related stimuli. Most notably, officers receive extensive experience with firearms during their academy training (before they are sworn in) and throughout their careers. For ex- ample, the Denver Police Department requires that new recruits spend 72 hr in practical weapons training, and officers must recertify on a quarterly basis. Through training, participants learn to ignore the irrelevant information and respond primarily on the basis of the central feature of the stimulus.

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Ascertaining the scope of field operations which are in effect or anticipated, and obtaining sufficient amounts and types of supplies. If additional help is required, the first officer at the scene will give their location, car number and name, and specify an estimated number of vehicles or officers believed necessary to bring the emergency under control. The dispatcher in the Communications Bureau will forward this recommendation to the Patrol Division Chief, or if absent, to the district commander on duty who will specify the Tactical Alert. The supervisor of the Communications Bureau will immediately implement the alert in the emergency procedure plan that is indicated after notification from the Patrol Division Chief or the district commander on duty. Channel 1 dispatch positions have direct lines to all necessary city and state offices. All police units and all monitors in other city offices have Channel 1 capabilities. The foregoing will apply to any emergency or catastrophic situation, parade, sporting event, plane crash, civil disturbance, or any situation that requires sufficient air time that routine police business is hampered. The first car from the affected district will be the communications vehicle, until relieved by the mobile communications van. They will remain with the vehicle at all times and maintain a log of all vehicles reporting to the incident and their locations. They will also keep the radio dispatcher informed of all cars and personnel at the scene of the incident. At this time, radio communications shall be handled as directed, from mobile van, police radio room, or department command post by the Chief of Police or his/her designee. No vehicles will respond to the incident unless specifically assigned by the dispatcher. All unassigned officers are to remain in their respective precincts and, in the event of any terrorist activity, be particularly alert to any critical areas such as shopping centers, schools, and any public utilities. The initial and primary responsibility of any officer taking command at the scene of an emergency is to immediately evaluate the extent of the emergency situation and take immediate and necessary steps to insure that adequate manpower and equipment are made available. Arrested persons will be brought to a designated staging area by the arresting officer. Establish disaster site security Control established disaster site response routes Control disaster site access points Provide crowd control as required Control established staging area for responders and the inner and outer perimeters of the disaster site. Police vehicles ordered back to regular duty will immediately switch back to their normally assigned radio channel and notify the dispatcher. When police vehicles are relieved at the scene of the incident, the field commander will notify the dispatcher. When the emergency itself is terminated and all police vehicles and personnel are to resume normal operations, the field commander will notify the dispatcher. These ordinances and statutes will cover many circumstances that might be encountered. When activated, or when in a standby status, the Colorado National Guard will have possession of two four channel police radio units only. One of these will be under the control of the commanding general, and the other will be a police vehicle loaned for the emergency, under the control of the commanding officer. National Guard officers will have radio communication with their own forces by National Guard network. All radio calls, orders, requests, and contacts to or with other National Guard units will therefore channel through one or both of these National Guard officers. In general, a police officer, equipped with police radio equipment, will be in company with each National Guard unit placed in service at our request or direction. Colorado National Guard command personnel will, under emergency conditions, be monitoring the police radio through their own or other systems. Numerical designations are generally the same as those employed for police department identification of units. The Denver Police Department policy regarding crowd management is to apply the appropriate level of direction and control to protect life and property, maintain public peace and order and to uphold constitutional rights of free speech and assembly. The Denver Police Department will seek to improve its ability to manage crowd control events through study of its past experiences and evaluation of incidents occurring in other jurisdictions. Consistent with this philosophy a manual will be developed to address various scenarios that may arise in crowd control situations, as well as options for dealing with them.

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For this experiment we will plate three wells per plate for each cell line, which is a total of 15 wells. You must always prepare a master-mix with slightly larger volume than you need to account for pipetting errors. Calculate the volume of cells you need to take out in order to make your master-mix (V1). Prepare the master-mix by mixing the appropriate volume (V1) of cells from your culture to a large tube with enough complete media to bring up the volume to 32 ml. If you are using more than one cell line, repeat the above procedure for the other cell line, using the second set of three wells on the six-well plates. Do not use the aspirator: crystal violet will stain the tubing of the aspirator, which is difficult to clean. Counting colonies In order to see the colonies clearly, you will stain the colonies with a blue/violet stain called crystal violet. Methanol will kill the cells but keeps the cell structures intact and prevents disintegration of the cells. Different sizes of colonies represent variations in growth rates among cells in the same culture. Calculate the average number of colonies for each set of three wells with the same treatment. Fluorescent molecules, also known as fluorophores, can absorb the energy of light at specific wavelengths and emit less energetic fluorescent light. When a fluorophore absorbs the energy of light it becomes excited by elevating to a higher energy level (excitation). The excited fluorophores go back to the ground state by releasing the energy in form of heat and emitted light (emission). A large variety of fluorophores have been made and modified to interact with specific cellular structures in order to study them. Calcein is a bright green fluorescence compound that absorbs and emits light at 495/520 nm respectively. Methanol will kill and fix the cells so the cellular structures remain intact after dying. Compare the fluorescent colors in different wells and write your observations in your notebook. Do you recognize any pattern of green fluorescence for the cells that are stained with calcein? Transfer of viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells is referred to as infection. Transfected cells are used to study gene expression and regulation, protein expression and function, gene therapy and more. The cells that are stably transfected need to be selected for and separated from the transient or nontransfected cells. In the following exercise, you will transfect your cells transiently by using two different plasmids: 1. Two days after transfection, the cells are fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in order to 44 keep the cellular structures intact. Plate cells in 24-well plates, so the wells are 70-80% confluent by the day of the experiment. Add 25 ls of the transfection mixture to each well drop-by-drop, according to the diagram in figure 13. Mix the plate by moving it back and forth or left and right gently, without spilling the media. Fluorescent molecules are photosensitive, so the plate should be kept in the dark. You need the green filter-cube to see the red fluorescence and the blue filter cube to see the green fluorescence. Do you see a difference in fluorescence between the control cells and the transfected cells?

Esophageal atresia

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Stem cell transplantation may help patients live longer, and even offers the possibility of a cure for certain blood cancers in some patients. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into the body to replace damaged or diseased stem cells. Normal blood stem cells, also called "hematopoietic stem cells," are immature cells that produce all the blood cells in the body. Blood stem cells can either divide to form more blood-forming stem cells, or they can mature into {{Red blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body blood cells that help fight infections and cancer that help control bleeding {{White {{Platelets All blood cells in the body begin as immature stem cells in the bone marrow, the spongy tissue that is found in the central cavity of certain bones. New red blood cells, platelets and most white blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. Blood stem cells are constantly dividing and changing into different types of blood cells, replacing older and worn-out blood cells. If the bone marrow cannot make enough new blood cells, many health problems can occur. These problems may include infections, bleeding or anemia, and can be serious enough to cause death. Blood stem cells are located in the {{Bone marrow, where most stem cells are found blood, the blood circulating throughout the body cords of newborn babies. If the stem cells are collected from bone marrow, the procedure is called a "bone marrow transplantation"; when the stem cells are collected from peripheral blood, it is called a "peripheral blood stem cell transplantation"; and if stem cells are collected from an umbilical cord, it is known as an "umbilical cord blood transplantation. To prepare for a stem cell transplantation, patients receive a conditioning regimen that consists of high doses of chemotherapy and sometimes radiation therapy. The conditioning regimen is designed to {{Provide intensive treatment to destroy cancer cells in patients with blood cancers and to destroy damaged stem cells in patients with diseases such as aplastic anemia blood-forming cells in the bone marrow to create space for the new, healthy stem cells. For some types of blood cancers, however, stem cell transplantation may also work directly to destroy the cancer cells. It is important for patients to discuss all potential treatment options and the associated risks and side effects with the members of their healthcare team to determine if stem cell transplantation is a treatment option for them. Transplants continue to be improved, making transplantation a treatment option for more patients each year. The estimated number of stem cell transplants in North America in 2014, by blood cancer type, is shown in Table 1, on page 5. This table provides the estimated number of stem cell transplants in North America. Included are the totals for each type of transplant by disease category as well as the grand totals for both types of transplant by disease category. Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation I 5 Transplant Eligibility Stem cell transplantation has been used to cure thousands of people who have cancer, but there are serious risks to this treatment. Some medical complications can even be life threatening, and the transplant process can also be difficult emotionally. Before undergoing stem cell transplantation, patients considering this treatment should discuss the risks and benefits with their doctors. Patients should also ask members of their healthcare team about other treatment options, including taking part in a clinical trial. Not all patients are eligible for stem cell transplantation because not all patients can withstand the conditioning regimen and the side effects of treatment. Some patients also may not be eligible for standard transplantation if they have other major health problems. For some of these patients, however, a reducedintensity allogeneic stem cell transplant may be a treatment option (see page 18). The risks of stem cell transplantation have decreased with the passing of each decade. For some diseases and patients, however, effective new drugs and new types of therapies may be better treatment options than stem cell transplantation. Doctors and their patients will consider many factors when deciding whether stem cell transplantation is the best treatment option. About three-quarters of people who develop a blood cancer, however, are older than age 50 years.

References:

  • https://www.ophed.com/system/files/2010/01/main-causes-visual-impairment-2207-2207.pdf
  • https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/24/4/633.full.pdf
  • https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.10.20021584v1.full.pdf
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