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Laparoscopic versus open repair of rectobladderneck and recto-prostatic anorectal malformations: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Long term outcomes of laparoscopicassisted anorectoplasty: a comparison study with posterior sagittal anorectoplasty. This matter is needed rationalization of health service more than devolution and decentralization of public services by the government of south Celebes include consolidation of take holder and local institution and also other services centralization. The purpose of this research is analyzing the rationalization of the referral system which integrated to national health assurance in South Celebes seen from several knowledge factors and social community value. This research used qualitative approach of phenomenology design, with analyzing method which used content analysis base on triangulation method, source triangulation and data triangulation. The result is gotten that there was information and communication bias among policy, provider, as a result from receiver variety in social community, made society not obey the rationalization of the referral system. This research can be concluded that understanding and awareness between policy and provider, social security administration is needed to give better health services. Affecting the sustain ability of health service negatively can cause lack of patient satisfaction. Furthermore, lacking of facility in family practice center can increase the high of reference. Keywords: Regionalization of the Referral System, Health Service, Health Social Value Introduction Socio-cultural development of society, life style, demands of the time and advance technology development which cannot be balanced with knowledge development, information access becomes one of factors or variables that influence in implementation of community social live policy very varied. The education failure to Correspondence Author: Amir Mahmud Hafsa Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia. Health social security provider, they have not fulfilled equity principle appropriate with constitution of national social health insurance required health equal service base on medical needs which is not bound by amount of participant contributions(2). The benefit obtained before the era of social health insurance also vary based on the provider, for instance there are some nit guaranteed services, limitation to services, and there is an obligation in paying deviation bill and also difference in accessing payment claim in accordance with segmentation of providers of health insurance participation. This case shows that uncomprehensive membership, the service we get always have discrimination between one to another in health service(3,4). One of main concerns is lack of standard procedures and protocol for reference patients among various service levels start from reference service in the first level until reference center, the prediction of patient referral waiting time from premier level to higher level and the quality of information which is reflected in reference form and reference system service have continuous positive effects(5). The research with qualitative method of phenomenology approach which analysis used content analysis based on method triangulation, source triangulation, and data triangulation. It Is understandable that society in every district is not balance in various aspects of life. Not only financial, knowledge, social structure, in South Celebes one district is different with another, so as the health policy is appropriate with evidence based, a regional characteristic, the current policy cannot top down anymore. Such us information from R1, and other 12 informants which is almost same with assumed related to regionalization of the referral system about 1424Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. But for the society, sometimes the health center just become a stepping stone to get reference letter of advance health facility. This matter will become a problem when there is society who really need hospital service, delay or even cannot be served because the hospital is full. We need strict rules, precise to give discipline in health service especially referral system, there must be a reward and punishment so that the society get the right health service base on indication. Failed education to the society, provider and receiver is a collaboration that need a special handling, in the future, should be form special team or own department to give clear and bright information so that the society can do health service well, effectively and efficiently. This is one of the saddest and heartbreaking evidences when he was interviewed and never imagined about his statement because he is a senior doctor, head department, the head of health center as the following expression: "Saya tinggal di perbatasan desa A, dengan Desa B kabupaten lain, kalau. Social value which is meant is region teaching, ideology, principle, morality, and also politeness rules which have by society, while organs of the society is social groups, institute, social institution that efforts embodiment of certain value becomes real and use in fulfilling needs(7). We believe that all society in the whole world without exception to Indonesia have a right of equal chance to enjoy health service with the best quality that can be achieved, patient as a core pushes us with not discriminative approach to health service policy which uphold health right for all(8). Furthermore, health service level to patient is differentiated and not given freedom to choose health facility that suitable with what he wants. Informant R2 stated that: Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. Besok dokternya visit disuruh kuret celakanya terjadi pendarahan akhirnya pasien meninggal" (R2, 45 Years Old) the informant invoked astonishing facts, do beyond healthy reason, when a program is become as inhumane business field.

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Placenta also secretes many hormones: Chorionic gonadotropin Prolactin Estrogens Progesterone Placental lactogen Chorionic thyrotropin the natural hormones and in many cases their synthetic analogues which may be more suitable therapeutically, are used as drugs for substitution therapy as well as for pharmacotherapy. In addition, hormone antagonists and synthesis/release inhibitors are of therapeutic importance. Sites and mechanisms of hormone action the hormones act on their specific receptors located on or within their target cells. Receptor activation by the hormones is translated into response in a variety of ways. Direct transmembrane Insulin, activation of tyrosine Growth hormone protein kinase Prolactin phosphorylation cascade regulation of various enzymes. All of these are peptide in nature and act at extracellular receptors located on their target cells. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus through releasing and release-inhibitory hormones that are transported via hypothalamohypophyseal portal system, and is subjected to feedback inhibition by the hormones of their target glands. Each anterior pituitary hormone is produced by a separate group of cells, which according to their staining characteristic are either acidophilic or basophilic. In general, there is a proportionate increase in the size and mass of all parts, but in the absence of gonadotropins, sexual maturation does not take place. It promotes retention of nitrogen, calcium and other tissue constituents: more protoplasm is formed. The positive nitrogen balance results from increased uptake of amino acids by tissues and their synthesis into proteins. Somatostatin is also produced by D cells of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and by few other tissues. Somatropin has been tried in children with constitutional short stature (only if epiphyses are open) with encouraging results. However, it should not be given to postoperative, trauma, cancer and other critically ill patients. Adverse effects Somatropin has low immunogenicity; allergic reactions or resistance to treatment are not a problem. Its antisecretory action is beneficial in pancreatic, biliary or intestinal fistulae; can also be used to reduce complications after pancreatic surgery. Surgical removal of pituitary adenomas is the preferred treatment modality, but somatostatin analogues are being increasingly used. Control of diarrhoea is due to suppression of hormones which enhance intestinal mucosal secretion. After parturition, prolactin induces milk secretion, since the inhibitory influence of high estrogen and progesterone levels is withdrawn. Continued high level of prolactin during breastfeeding is responsible for lactational amenorrhoea, inhibition of ovulation and infertility for several months postpartum. Endogenous opioid peptides may also be involved in regulating prolactin secretion, but no feedback regulation by any peripheral hormone is known. Prolactin levels in blood are low in childhood, increase in girls at puberty and are higher in adult females than in males. Subsequently, high prolactin secretion is maintained by suckling: it falls if breast feeding is discontinued. Adverse effects are abdominal pain, nausea, steatorrhoea, diarrhoea, and gall stones (due to biliary stasis). Lanreotide Another long-acting analogue of somatostatin, very similar in actions and specificity to octreotide, which on i. It was originally described as the hormone which causes secretion of milk from crop glands of pigeon and later found to be of considerable importance in human beings as well. Physiological function Prolactin is the primary stimulus which in conjunction with estrogens, progesterone and several other hormones, causes growth and development of breast during pregnancy. It promotes proliferation of ductal as well as acinar cells in the breast and induces synthesis of milk proteins and lactose.


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Hess; the goal is to carry out a preliminary rapid diagnosis of the presence or absence of neurosis in humans)26; (interpretation of results: 0-8 - low level (there is no neurosis), 9-16 - level below average (possible presence of neurosis), 17-24 - average level of neurosis, 25-32 - level of neurosis above average, 33-40 - high neurosis level); 2. Aleksandrovich; the goal is to conduct a quantitative determination of the severity of the neurotic syndrome)28,29; (interpretation of results: scale "Fear, phobias": 0-18 points - low level, 19-38 points - level below average, 39-58 points - average level, 59-78 points - level above average, 79-98 points - high level; scale "Depressive disorders": 0-9 points - low level, 10-19 points - level below average, 20-29 points - average level, 30-39 points level above average, 40-49 points - high level; scale "Anxiety, tension": 0-14 points - low level, 15-28 points - level below average, 29-42 points - average level, 43-56 points - level higher than average, 5770 points - high level; scale "Sleep disturbance": 0-7 points - low level, 8-14 points - level below average, 15-21 points - average level, 22-28 points - level above average, 29-35 points - high level; scale "Hysterical disorders": 0-9 points - low level, 10-19 points - level below average, 20-29 points average level, 30-39 points - level above average, 40 -49 points - high level; scale "Neurasthenic disorders": 0-10 points - low level, 11-22 points level below average, 23-33 points - average level, 34-45 points - level above average, 46-56 points - high level; "Sexual Disorders" scale: 0-9 points low level, 10-19 points - level below average, 20-29 points - average level, 30-39 points - level above average, 40-49 points - high level; "Realization" scale: 0-10 points - low level, 11-22 points - level below average, 23-33 points - average level, 34-45 points - level above average, 46-56 points - high level; "Obsession" scale: 0-10 points - low level, 11-22 points - level below average, 23-33 points average level, 34-45 points - level above average, Materials and Method the study involved 368 employees of organizations that have identified a level above the average and a high level of professional deformation (emotional and/ or physical exhaustion, depersonalization, reduction of personal achievements). Jackson22; the authors of the questionnaire modification - teachers of the Department of Psychology of Professional Activity of St. Rukavishnikov25, 1660Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. The results of determining the symptoms of neurotic syndrome showed that the average level (63%) with a brief experience of anxiety, tension and fears, periodic sleep disorders, unpleasant thoughts, ideas, memories, doubts, difficulties in social contacts: 1. The results of the assessment of neurotic states showed that the majority of employees of organizations with professional deformities (60%) showed a level above average (there are signs of such neurotic states as: the presence of asthenia and the hysterical type of response, increased anxiety, manifestations of autonomic and obsessive-phobic disorders, a tendency to neurotic depression): 1. The results of the study across the entire diagnostic unit showed that 67% of employees of organizations with professional deformities revealed an average level of the neurotic syndrome, which is characterized by neuroticism, anxiety, tension, fears, sleep disorders, obsessions, difficulties in social contacts, anxiety, asthenia, a tendency to neurotic depression, psychasthenic and somatic disorders. Ethics Committee Resolution: the study was approved by the local ethics committee of the Russian State Social University on September 15, 2018 (protocol 11). Transcriptional activity of chromosome nucleolar organizing regions in population of Kursk region. Relationship between the chromosome nucleoli-forming regions and somatometric parameters in humans. Antiplatelet control of vessels over the main blood cells in hypertensives with dyslipidemia in complex therapy. The influence of nebivolol on thrombocyte aggregation in patients with arterial hypertension with metabolic syndrome. Some aspects of Treatment of Patients having Dislipidemia on the Background of Hypertension. A Study of the Early Disturbances in Vascular Hemostasis in Experimentally Induced Metabolic Syndrome. Self-control in communication as a factor in overcoming the states of depersonalization of psychologists and educators. The Technologies of Performing Social Services in Russia by Social Service Institutions (Evidence from Kursk and Belgorod Regions). Psychological Satisfaction of Parents of Young Football Players with a Mosaic Form of Down Syndrome by the Quality of Sports Training. Correction of thrombocyte hemostasis and biological age reduction in metabolic syndrome. An association between human morphological phenotypical characteristics and the activity of chromosomal nucleolar organizer regions in the interphase cell nucleus in the population of indigenous people of Kursk region. The influence of professional deformities (burnout) on the image of a female leader. Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency; Russian State Social University. The Effect of Complex Treatment on Platelet Aggregation Activity in Patients with Grade 3 Arterial Hypertension with Metabolic Syndrome. Assessing their characteristics in people with low physical activity, who began to regularly experience moderate physical activity, can help to more fully reveal the mechanisms for optimizing the micro-rheological properties of red blood cells. The observation group consisted of 45 men of the second adulthood, who began regular classes in the athletics section 3 times a week, who previously had low physical activity. The control group consisted of 42 men of the same age who regularly visited the athletics section 3 times a week for at least 10 years. For 6 months of physical training, people who previously had low physical activity noted the elimination of the imbalance of arachidonic acid metabolites, lowering cholesterol and acyl hydroperoxides with an increase in their total phospholipids. After 6 months, these individuals showed an increase in red blood cells-discocytes by 8. It is clear that for people of the second adulthood, who began regular physical activity after a long period of low physical activity, a gradual improvement in the cytoarchitectonic properties of red blood cells is characteristic, which improved their microcirculation processes and activated metabolism. Keywords: Second adulthood, prolonged low physical activity, red blood cells, surface properties of the membrane, athletics loads. It causes the implementation of many variants Corresponding Author: Nadezhda Viktorovna Vorobyeva Department of Physical Education, Professor, SouthWest state University, st. The consequences of low physical activity in humans manifest themselves at a young age, increasing the frequency of episodes of temporary disability due to weakening of the functional reserves of the whole organism and the gradual development of pre-pathological and pathological conditions7,8.

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Compare and contrast the mechanism of action, immunogenicity rate, and adverse effects of the two available hepatitis B vaccines. Survey several pharmacies to estimate the approximate retail cost of adefovir dipivoxil, lamivudine, entecavir, telbivudine, pegylated interferon, and interferon therapy for the treatment of hepatitis B. Review the time course of serologic markers after acute hepatitis B virus infection and explain their significance to one of your peers. Non-smoker; denies illicit drug or inhalant use; drinks two to four glasses of wine once or twice weekly. Recalls having icteric sclerae and a period of severe fatigue and nausea in high school, which she had thought to be "mono. Evaluate the clinical and laboratory endpoints for treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Develop a plan for monitoring efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic management of chronic hepatitis C. Provide patient education for patients with chronic hepatitis C regarding their medications. She states that she feels fine much of the time, but sometimes has fatigue, fluid retention, headaches, and difficulty sleeping. She has lost about 10 pounds in the last 2 months, which she attributes to reduced appetite, since her activity level has diminished. She is perimenopausal and has isolated episodes of hot flashes and flushes but still menstruates on a regular 25-day cycle. The chills and muscle aches that plagued her during the first few weeks of therapy have abated. She is beginning to exercise a bit more, taking her regular "power walks" with her neighbors as well as doing more outside work. What other laboratory tests should be obtained to better monitor her drug therapy tolerance? At her 24-week visit, she is feeling much better, although she has noticed a bit more fatigue on exertion (when cutting the grass or taking "power walks" with her neighbors). Based on this new information, what changes would you recommend for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C for this patient, and for how long? Outline a plan for vaccination of this patient against other forms of viral hepatitis. Does this patient have any medical conditions that are considered contraindications to receiving the treatments discussed in the previous question? Estimate the cost of a 12-month course of interferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Include the cost of syringes and needles, monthly clinic visits, and laboratory tests. Perform a literature search to compare the differences in pharmacokinetic properties and tolerance between interferon and peginterferon. Which baseline parameters of this patient have been suggested as predictors of poor response to the treatment you recommended? What actions can be taken if the patient develops intolerable adverse effects to the treatment you recommended? Assess appropriateness of aminoglycoside serum concentrations in relation to efficacy and toxicity. Three days post-operation, purulent drainage was noted from the surgical site, and he was subsequently diagnosed with mediastinitis.

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It is very important to prevent the disease because it greatly affects the mortality and morbidity of women. Improving education can significantly change the lifestyle of women, thereby reducing the risk of breast cancer. In 2018, the number of cancer deaths was Corresponding Author: Nurhayati Adnan Prihartono Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Depok, 16424, West Java, Indonesia e-mail: nurhayati-a@ui. According to the Indonesian state expenditure on cancer is the after hemodialysis. Breast cancer was the cancer with the second highest prevalence in Indonesia in 2013 after cervical cancer, at 5 cases per 10,000 population. The highest prevalence of breast cancer in Indonesia was also in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, at 24 per 10,000 3. Every gene has a function in the body, one of the main ones being to divide cells. Gene mutations can be caused by aging, the influence of radiation on the environment on radiation, chemicals, hormones and other factors such as smoking and alcohol. Cells can usually divide and turn into cancer over a long period of time, which explains why older people have a higher risk of breast cancer4. Lifestyle factors include high fat diets, lack of exercise, deficiency of certain vitamins or fibre, adult weight gain, alcohol intake and smoking, together with the lack of moderate physical activity or vegetable intake 5. Based on epidemiological studies, it is known that lifestyle factors play a very important role in the development of breast cancer. Lifestyle factors that can be modified relate to obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, diet of vegetables and fruits, physical activity, hormone therapy after menopause, diabetes mellitus and stress6. The results of scientific research have found that consumption of fibre in fruit and vegetables, especially green vegetables, can reduce the risk of breast cancer, while alcohol consumption can increase the risk. Women who consume alcohol can increase their hormone estradiol, which is a risk factor in breast cancer. Breast cancer screening is an examination to find abnormal breast conditions that can become breast cancer. A prospective cohort study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer in 105,986 women concluded that 5. Women with low physical activity had a greater risk of developing breast cancer compared to those with frequent exercise habits or high physical activity12. Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second cause of female deaths from the disease. The ability of existing screening tests and knowledge of the risk factors that cause breast cancer is an interesting disease to study that is useful in prevention breast cancer. Several lifestyle factors that can be changed are known to be very effective in preventing the disease13. It was conducted in AugustSeptember 2016 in 34 provinces in Indonesia, consisting 2008Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. The number of samples determined was 70,000 respondents spread across 1,400 census blocks and 76 selected districts in 34 provinces throughout Indonesia. A total of 39,188 respondents were willing to undergo clinical examinations, although 439 of these had incomplete data. Lifestyle factors measured were smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, protein intake and fibre intake. Smoking status was divided into smokers and non-smokers, including those who smoked every day and those who had sometimes in the past month (when the research was conducted). Alcohol consumption was the habit of drinking alcohol in the past month (when the research was conducted). Protein intake was the weekly habit of consuming animal and vegetable protein, divided into high (daily) and low (<5 days a week). Fibre intake was the weekly habit of consuming fruit and vegetables, also divided into high (daily) and low (<5 days a week). Bivariate analysis was used to observe the relationship between lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, protein and fibre intake) and the incidence of breast cancer. Results Table 1: Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Women Aged 25-64 in Urban Areas of Indonesia in 2016 Variable Breast Cancer Yes No 68 38,681 0. Table 2: Characteristics of the Study Sample Variable Age 40 Years < 40 Years Education Low High Work status Unemployed Working Smoking Smoker Non- Smoker Alcohol Consumption Yes No 7 61 0.

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This study aims to explore the educational needs of family caregivers in caringstroke patients at home. This research was conducted through in-depth interviews on fifteen stroke family caregivers at Haji General Hospital, Surabaya. According to the World Stroke Organization, strokes have now become an epidemic in the world. Aside from being a cause of death, stroke is a major cause of long-term disability. Disability (physical disability) results in sufferers experiencing difficulties on their daily activities, therefore they need assistance1. Family support is expected to help patients optimize the rehabilitation phase of patients so that they can improve the quality of life for post-stroke patients [1]. However, family members carry the burden of continuous treatment for the stroke patients[2]. Stroke patients and their families often report that they have not been given enough information about strokes and feel unprepared for life after returning from the hospital. The results of a study conducted by Shyu et al (2008) [3] found that families of stroke patients often felt they were not prepared enough to meet the physical, cognitive, and emotional needs of stroke patients. Therefore, researchers are interested to explore the educational needs of stroke family caregivers. Corresponding Author: Ira Nurmala Department of Health Promotion and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia e-mail: iranurmala@fkm. This phenomenological approach is to understand, explain and give deep meaning to the educational needs of the family caregiver about post-acute care for stroke patients at Hospital based on their perspective at the time this research was conducted. The researcher also made field notes to comprehensively better ensure the completeness of the data. Sample: this research was conducted in a hospital of East Java provincial government. The order of data analysis were performing verbatim transcription, identifying the keywords, categorizing, determining sub-themes, conducting validation to participants and determining the final theme of the study. The excerpts from the interview are as follows: "I want to get some information on how to practice lifting hands, they are heavy, right? Mobilization and transfer of patients: Mobilization is assumed to be one of the things that health workers need to provide. Some informants said that they wanted to know how to practice walking and using a cane during walking exercises. I want to learn the right way to wipe the hand, how to tilt the body, and what if bathing him once a week? The results of the study found three themes,which were physical, psychological and structured discharge planning education needs. Medical rehabilitation training at home: the majority of informants mentioned that they needed education about medical rehabilitation, i. The majority of informants stated that they wanted to know how to prevent recurrent stroke. Wife] "The doctor explained yesterday, said there was a golden period or something. According to them, some patients feel sad and despair in experiencing their condition. Please teach me to make the patient to stay motivated [I4, child] Structured Discharge Planning Needs: the discharge planning given to the family caregivers has not been structured so far. The majority of informants stated that education is needed as their guide in caring their affected family members at home. All informants stated that they needed education about how to perform medical rehabilitation at home. In order to avoid the long term impact Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. Organ dysfunction in stroke patients causes them to depend on the family caregiver to carry out daily activities. For example, bathing the patient must be done as clean as possible to avoid the risk of decubitus, improper feeding can increase the risk of pneumonia and improper way of wearing clothes will make it difficult for the process. Therefore families need to get education about safety and prevention of falling down. The majority of informants also needed education regarding explanations about the introduction of stroke symptoms and prevention of complications.

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This type of intrinsic control is not available for evaluation of the trunk muscle endurance. It is necessary to reference a normative data in order to find alternations of Trunk Musculature from Normal that is the main need of the study. Core stability did not become popular in previous century, with the idea developing from the study of spinal stability by individuals, such as Punjabi 8. Although lack of core stability associated with low back pain 2 and injuries 9-10. Time was recorded in seconds per position where the participants could hold a static position of maximum seconds. Participant Begin and end the test with word start and stop and time was recorded with Stopwatch. To maintain uniformity all participants were ask to perform test in same sequence. Trunk Anterior Flexor Test Methodology A total of 80 male participants of 18-35 years were taken from various sports ground of Vadodara. Verbal explanation of study was given to all participants and written consent was taken. Trunk Posterior Extensor Test Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. Endurance levels were defined by using percentiles as low (between 25 and 50th), medium (between 50 and 75th), high (between 75 and 100th) respectively. The mean values for Trunk Flexors, extensors, Rt Lateral and Lt Lateral Plank are 148 Sec, 108 Sec, 81. A study done by Mbada et al (2010)19 on normative values of static and dynamic abdominal muscles endurance in healthy Nigerians shows mean value 34. McIntosh et al20 had done study on trunk and lower extremity muscle endurance: They conclude that normative data for adults age group 19-29 years, who had endurance more than 75th percentile was 25% of male and female for dynamic chest raise, 18% male and 14% female for bilateral straight leg raise, 68% male and 62% female for static chest raise, 47% male and 46% female for prone bilateral straight leg raise. Shih-Lin, Harumi Oda, Saya Shirahata, Mana Watanabe, Effects of core strength training on core stability. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, February 2016, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 15. Low Back Pain: From Formal Description to Issues for Performance and Rehabilitation. Conclusion this study was done to find out the normative data for endurance of trunk flexors, extensors and side flexors group of muscle in individuals of 18-35 years age group. Thus, the reference values in this study provide base for the rehabilitation program in runners and also as an outcome measure for quantitative improvement and can provide valuable insights for the other future researchers. Future Study can be performed with the larger sample size by including both male and female gender. Kamlesh Parmar and other participants who spare time from their busy schedules to participate in this study. The Relationship Between Core Endurance and Back Dysfunction in Collegiate Male Athletes with and without Nonspecific Low Back Pain International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy June 2016. Endu-Rance Times For Low-Back Stabilization Exer-Cises: Clinical Targets for Testing and Training from A Normal Database. Normative Values of Trunk Flexors and Extensors Muscles Endurance of Healthy College Students. A Field Test for the Assessment of Abdominal Mu-Scular Endurance in Professional Ice Hockey Players Journal of Orthopaedic And Sports. Normative Values of Static and Dynamic Abdominal Muscles Endurance in Apparently Healthy Nigerians. Spatial cluster analysis is also a sampling strategy in large scale data on population/public health research; K Mean centroid is an exploratory tool to find the natural spatial clusters at focused level for both categorical and continues variables. Objective: the objective of the study was to develop a methodology for defining natural neighborhoods. Materials and Method: the exploratory study was carried out during Nov 2016 to Dec 2017, using Primary Census Abstract of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu issued from census 2011. Village data was extracted and the variables were made as domains by factor reduction and its scores were calculated by factor analysis.

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Comparison of numerical variables between the study groups was done using Student t test for independent samples in comparing two groups of normally distributed data and Mann Whitney U test for independent samples for comparing not-normal data. Within group comparison of numerical variables was done using paired t test in comparing two groups when normally distributed and Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired (matched) samples when not normally distributed. Post-test the mean scores of total knowledge and practice were significantly differed (Table 2). Discussion the current study evaluated the impact of discharge educational program on knowledge and practice among the mothers of preterm infants. After implementation of the discharge educational program mothers in the study group reported a higher satisfaction level of knowledge and practice about how to care for their preterm infants than those in the control group. The discharge education program as a nursing therapeutic intervention was significantly improved knowledge and practice of mothers about how to care for their preterm infants at home. The findings of the current study denoted the positive effects of education on knowledge and practice among the mothers of preterm infants, this in consistent with (16) study. Similarly, a study conducted by (14) reported that mothers involved in the education program had increased knowledge and skills about how to care for their preterm infants. However the current study findings contradicted with (5)showed that interventions were not effective for mothers in caring for their preterm infants at home. At present there are no standardized protocols about hospital discharge and follow-up care of premature infants in Egypt. Consequently, premature infants may leave the hospital without adequate discharge and follow-up care plans to ensure appropriate and adequate care at home. Based on the results in this study, it is recommended that discharge education program for mothers about caring for their preterm infants should be included in clinical routine care and clinical care policy should be established to support the use of discharge education program so as to benefit premature infants and their families. Ethical Clearance: Approvals were obtained from research ethical committee at faculty of nursing, - Cairo University. All mothers who participated in the study were informed about the aim, procedure, benefits, and nature of the study. The anonymity and confidentiality issues of information were assured and the mothers had the right to refuse or withdraw from the study at any time during the study without any effect on the care provided to their preterm neonates. Transition home plus program reduces medicaid spending and health care use for high-risk infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for 5 or more days. Effect of an educational intervention on parental readiness for premature infant discharge from the neonatal intensive care units. Transition from hospital to home in parents of preterm infants: a literature review. Premji S, Honors G, Currie G, Dosani A, Reilly S, Young M, Hall M, Williamson T, LodhaA, et al. Needs Perceived by Parents of Preterm Infants: Integrating Care Into the Early Discharge Process. Feasibility of a guided participation discharge program for very preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial. The framework of nicu-discharge plan system for preterm infants in iran: duties, components and capabilities. Estrellita: a mobile capture and access tool for the support of preterm infants and their caregivers. Elbarabary4 1 Assistant Lecturer, Pediatric Nursing, 2Professor, Pediatric Nursing, 3Assistant Prof. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of protocol of care for mothers on postoperative outcomes among their children with developmental dysplasia of hip. It represents a broad spectrum of conditions affecting the proximal femur and acetabulum, in which the femoral head and the acetabulum are not aligned and do not develop proportionately1. Eight in ten cases are females; roughly 6 in 10 children occur in the first born children. Furthermore, ultrasound studies have demonstrated hip instability in up to 15% of all newborn3. Hip dysplasia into teens and later life may result in irregular gait, reduced the strength and generate many hip and knee disease4. All of the parents had problems with care giving activities in the home, especially toileting, cast care, and skin care, pain, feeding and personal hygiene6. Protocols of care are instruments that can reduce the variability of conduct among the professionals involved in health care, to promote greater security for the patient and for the professional, to allow process and outcome indicators to be developed, to improve the quality of care and the rational use of resources7.

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The monitoring and management of common, chronic diseases such as hypertension, asthma, and diabetes are now being done in partnership between pharmacists and medical professionals. Models of community pharmacy practice now include private consultations and advanced practice techniques that were formerly limited to sites such as the Indian Health Service and the Department of Veterans Affairs. A majority of states now have regulations that allow pharmacists to assess and prescribe. Nothing could be further from the truth, and this medical myth is probably a major contributor to compliance problems among patients with chronic diseases. In the traditional medical care model, health care professionals perceive their roles to be in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of disease. As drug therapy managers, pharmacists focus on blood levels, kinetic dosage calculations, and drug interactions. Patients then perceive questions about compliance to be intrusive and, fearing parentaltype sanctions from the provider, lie about being compliant. Using specific strategies during the initial patient visit when follow-up care is discussed can prevent this all-too-common problem. Explain that compliance is very important to successful outcomes, but that you 15 know how hard it is to remember to take medication every day. Tell the patient that you expect that he or she will be like all patients and experience some difficulty remembering to take the medication. Ask the patient to keep track of those instances if possible, and further explain that you will be asking at each visit about the problems the patient has had with the medication so you can assist the patient to better remember to take the medication. It may be necessary to probe into his or her daily habits and to help him or her find a way to tie medication taking into a particular activity. For instance, if the patient always makes coffee in the morning, having the medication nearby may be a sufficient reminder to promote compliance. Yes No Note: In this situation, using closed-ended questions covering major potential problems or complications is an efficient method. One simple way to look at all patients returning for follow-up of chronic diseases is to use the "Three Cs": Control, Complications, and Compliance. For example, a patient with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoarthritis who takes lisinopril, glyburide, and ibuprofen can be queried about the presence of cough, difficulty sleeping, and exercise tolerance. Collecting subjective information at each visit can be organized by integrating the "Three Cs" with broad open-ended questions similar to the Basic 7 Questions. To identify potential compliance problems, review the health record or patient profile for objective evidence of potential noncompliance before talking with the patient. During profile review, three items should alert the pharmacist to potential compliance problems. The first and most common item is a discrepancy between the number of doses that should have been taken and the number of doses dispensed. Third, the prescribing of a new medication for the same condition or one that may unknowingly be prescribed to offset adverse effects from another medication may indicate compliance problems. If the provider does not make the connection between the new symptom and the side effect, compliance or therapeutic problems may eventually occur. General approach to interviewing patients returning for chronic disease follow-up. Gaps in refills may be a result of patients obtaining refills at another location, or the doctor may have told the patient to change the dosage schedule or to stop the drug altogether. Begin the consultation using the Show-and-Tell technique for refill prescriptions when the profile indicates potential noncompliance. The patient may provide one or more clues during consultation to confirm your suspicions. Patients who tell the pharmacist during the Show-and-Tell questioning that they are taking their medication differently than prescribed are providing evidence of a potential compliance problem. Some clues are obvious, such as when a patient asks, "Why do I have to keep taking this medicine?

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There is significant effect of Patanjali Yoga practice on mental health factors which are emotional stability, adjustment and self concept. It is also revealed that there is insignificant effect of Patanjali Yoga practice on mental health factors which are autonomy, security-insecurity and intelligence. It was also found that Patanjali yoga practice do not effect moral judgment of juvenile delinquents. Hence, after having conversation with authority it was clear that there was a positive change seen amongst juvenile delinquents due to Patanjali Yoga practice and they want these yoga practices to be contionusly scheduled from time to time. Ethical Clearance: Not required as per study Source of Funding: Not Applicable Conflict of Interest: Nil 1. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disease: a review of the literature. Harried lawyers still their minds with yoga and meditation, American Bar Association. Dworkis S, Recovery Yoga: A Practical Guide for Chronically Ill, Injured, and Post-Operative People, New York: Three Rivers Press, 1997. It leads significant harm to the physical, psychological and social health of individuals, families and communities as a whole. Materials and Method: Quantitative approach with descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. Results: Shows that mean quality of life score of wives of alcoholics in physical domain (11. Conclusion: the study findings revealed that wives of alcoholics are having poor quality of life. Hence need to adopt effective interventions to promote the wellbeing of the wives of alcoholics and to improve their quality of life. Introduction Alcoholism is a serious global health concern which affects not only the individual but also his family and Corresponding Author: Dr. It creates major problem to the family members especially the wife and they face untold misery. Wives of the alcoholics are the persons who suffer the consequences of alcoholism and its effects the most. Wives of alcoholics first they try to adjust with the problems but finally they begin to feel depressed, confused, and even guilty1. The wife of an alcoholic, who enters into marital life with a heart full of expectations, becomes exhausted, when she faces tough life situations from alcoholic husband. Social influence process plays an important Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, March 2020, Vol. In Indian society, alcoholism is one of the major social problems which have negative effects on the spouse of an alcoholic4. This problem directly affects the health of family structure, feeling of hatred, self pity, avoidance of social contacts, divorce, irresponsibility of husbands, suicide, homicide, broken home, poor academic performance of children, poverty are all the outcome of this evil. The community support system, including the mental health services can be a good resource for them to bring them out of this contagious problem. From all the above statistics it is evident that there is an increased with multi factorial problems among the wives of alcoholics, which decreases the quality of life. Hence the present study was undertaken to assess the quality of life of wives of alcoholics. The need and purpose of the study was explained to the participants in their local language and confidentiality was assured. Results Section 1: Description of Sample characteristics: this section deals with the description of the baseline characteristics of 132 subjects presented in frequency and percentage. Materials and Method A quantitative approach with descriptive survey research design was adapted in this study to meet the objectives. The study was conducted in two villages of Mangalore and Bantwal taluks of Dakshina Kannada district. Ethical Clearance: obtained from Institutional Ethics committee of Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore.


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  • https://www.ijhsr.org/IJHSR_Vol.8_Issue.11_Nov2018/11.pdf
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