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People diagnosed with congenital kidney disease, IgA nephropathy, post-infectious kidney disease, or medicine-induced kidney disease were excluded from the study. High dioxin levels were associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease compared with low dioxin levels (10. The strengths of this study include a large population, adjustments for age, fasting glucose, insulin, and uric acid, as well as serum measurements of exposure and a clear definition of chronic kidney disease. Data on other potential confounders such as waist circumference, dietary intake, and socioeconomic status were not available. Of the 424 total participants, 151 reported an occupational history of agriculture. The pesticides that were reported by participants as commonly used included 2,4-D. This study is limited by its lack of exposure validation through serum or other measures. Other Identified Studies Two other studies of kidney and urinary disorders were identified, but both were limited by a lack of exposure specificity (Orantes et al. A third study was also identified, but instead of being limited by exposure specificity, it was limited by the fact that the outcomes examined were not diagnosed health outcomes but rather indicators of biologic effects. A hospitalization study of New Zealand Vietnam veterans found that chronic renal failure risk was statistically significantly increased among the veterans compared with the standardized general population of New Zealand, but there was no difference in the prevalence of other kidney or urinary outcomes (Cox et al. A cross-sectional study of agricultural behaviors, including the use of 2,4-D, and health outcomes in a Nicaraguan community (Raines et al. The thyroid secretes the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which stimulate and help to regulate metabolism throughout the body. The thyroid also secretes calcitonin, a hormone that controls calcium concentration in the blood and the storage of calcium in bones. Iodine operates in thyroid physiology both as a constituent of thyroid hormones and as a regulator of glandular function. Concentrations of those circulating hormones are regulated primarily by a negative-feedback pathway that involves three organs: the thyroid, the pituitary, and the hypothalamus. Cells in the hypothalamus and pituitary respond to concentrations of circulating T4 and T3. A disruption of thyroid homeostasis can be stimulatory (hyperthyroidism) or suppressive (hypothyroidism). The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in adults in the general population ranges from 1% to 10%, depending on the group, the testing setting, sex, age, the method of assessment, and the presence of conditions that affect thyroid function. People who have subclinical (biochemical) conditions may or may not show other signs or symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. In adults, the thyroid is able to compensate, within reasonable limits, for mild or moderate disruption (such as that caused by hyperplasia or goiter). Among Korean Vietnam veterans, two publications considered thyroid outcomes (Yi et al. A mortality analysis of the Korean Vietnam veteran cohort of 180,639 male veterans did not find any association between herbicide exposure and deaths from endocrine diseases when the cohort was analyzed as a group (Yi et al. In comparison with those who had never used 2,4-D, an increased risk of hypothyroidism was seen in both those who had used 2,4-D for more than the median number of days and those whose days of 2,4-D use were fewer than the median, (p-trend = 0. None of the phenoxy herbicides were found to be related to having histories of other thyroid diseases. This association was stronger for women who were exposed before menarche than for women exposed after menarche. Clear effects of dioxin-like compounds on thyroid function were not apparent in Inuit adults (Dallaire et al. Levels of cortisol and corticosterone in serum and saliva were higher in those women living in the hot spot area and were positively correlated with breast-milk dioxin concentrations. This study extends the follow-up period of these workers to approximately 30 years from their last 2,4,5-T production exposure. Other Identified Studies Three additional epidemiologic studies were identified that presented outcomes on endocrine and metabolic effects.
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Techniques of healing that correspond to each category are described in our review. If after perusing the chapter, you may want to research a particular technique, the bibliography provides a variety of resources. MechAnicAl eneRgy the following subsections provide some examples of manual medicine or body manipulation. Feeling that conventional medical practice was inadequate for the effective treatment of most illnesses, he introduced his concepts of osteopathy 10 years later and opened the first school of osteopathy in 1892 in Kirksville, Missouri. Still based his new methodology on the principle that the body is structurally and functionally one reciprocally interrelated system. Still felt strongly that the body has an inherent ability to repair itself and believed that the healthy body is a homeostitic unit, not a collection of functioning parts. It appears that medical science today is once again coming to terms with that fact. The high-velocity, low-frequency 161 162 the Scientific Basis of Integrative Medicine technique (a thrust with an audible "pop") is the best known manipulation and has been sanctioned by chiropractors as well as osteopaths. Other techniques involve palpating the skin or muscle to release muscle spasm or myofascial tissue and to permit lymphatic drainage. However, osteopathy also incorporates a spectrum of therapeutic techniques, including nutrition, physical therapy, and conventional allopathic medical modalities, such as pharmaceuticals and surgery. Osteopathic manipulation, coupled with the broader spectrum of osteopathic care, is currently used for numerous musculoskeletal injuries, childhood otitis media, and various respiratory conditions. Published research largely involves reviews, case studies, description of techniques, or warnings of neurological complications. The few efficacy studies that can be found appear to be quite mixed, but they do seem to be strongest for musculoskeletal conditions (Bronfort et al. The dura is connected to the sacral and cranial bones, where a similar range of motion can be detected. Effects that extend to other parts of the body via the fascia often produce release of suppressed, emotionally laden memories. An energy the Relaxation System 163 transfer is said to occur between the practitioner and the patient, restoring balance to physical or emotional dysfunction. The technique is taught to a variety of healthcare professionals, from medical doctors to those performing various types of bodywork, and requires no medical licensing. Craniosacral therapy is said to be useful for the alleviation of pain from accidents, for stress-related symptoms, for sensory disorders, and to promote overall health. The academy distinguishes itself by certifying only osteopathic doctors, medical doctors, or doctors of dentistry and by requiring approved courses in cranial osteopathy. Cranial osteopathy is based on the same principles of osteopathic care, which emphasize treating the whole body and not any one symptom. Daniel David Palmer, who restored hearing to a man by adjusting his thoracic vertebrae, developed the treatment in the 1880s. Chiropractic treatment involves manipulating the spine in order to correct structural imbalances, thus restoring nerve function. A misalignment in the spine is thought to cause a subluxation, which is a slight dislocation of bones within a joint. Currently, the term is used to refer to any type of vertebral blockage, but most often nerve entrapment. Currently, chiropractic treatment is prescribed for a 164 the Scientific Basis of Integrative Medicine variety of conditions, including injury, asthma, migraine and other forms of headache, and neck or back pain, with results of mixed efficacy (Balon et al. The tissues are loosened and proper blood supply restored to these areas, resulting in a state of total body relaxation. Massage is also known to promote venous and lymphatic drainage (Freeman and Lawlis, 2001). Currently there are a variety of massage techniques used, but most originate from the work of Pehr Henrik Ling and his "Swedish massage" therapy. While, historically speaking, massage is considered effective for pain relief and relaxation, it is also known to elicit feelings and memories of emotional trauma. As the body is brought to this vertical position, it is thought that the sensations of pain that occur are the sites at which the body has stored emotional trauma.
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Helen and Harold Harrison Award for Outstanding Proficiency in Pediatrics this award was established by the Alumni/ae of Dr. It is intended to give honor to the outstanding contributions made by the Harrisons over the many years of their tenure at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Francis Scott Key Medical Center, and it will, in addition, recognize each year senior students whose efforts in pediatrics have been distinguished. Sylvan Shane, a member of the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at Johns Hopkins from 1980 to 1984, has created an endowment to recognize an outstanding medical student making a career choice in anesthesiology. His generous gift is designed to give support and encouragement to graduating medical students who are committed to the same efforts. McAlpin Research Fund the purpose of this fund, made possible by a cash award to Dr. Frank from the National Mental Health Association, is to encourage research by students in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health into any aspect of mental illness and mental health, but with preference given to studies relevant to clinical care, psychotherapy, or public health. Recipients will be selected by a committee composed of the Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, the Chairman of the Department of Mental Hygiene of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, or persons they designate, and Dr. To apply for a grant, the student must submit a letter to the chairman of either department stating the amount requested and the reasons for the request, with a supporting letter from a faculty member. The amount of any single grant, or the total multiple grants to any one person, shall not exceed $500. Leo Kanner Student Research Fund the Leo Kanner Student Research Fund was established in 1982 by Mrs. Kanner, the first professor of child psychiatry at Johns Hopkins, was division director from 1930 to 1959 and is often called the Father of Child Psychiatry. Income from the fund is used to provide a student in the School of Medicine the opportunity to participate in a summer research project with a Child Psychiatry faculty member. Saltzstein Prize for Medical Writing this prize was established in 1990 through an endowment provided by the family of Dr. Saltzstein, a graduate of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Class of 1914. Saltzstein was the founder of Sinai Hospital of Detroit as well as its first Chief of Staff. He founded the Bulletin, Sinai Hospital of Detroit and ultimately became its editor. Sidney Saltzstein, graduated from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1954. This annual prize will recognize excellence in medical writing by a student of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Summer Research Stipends for Medical Students Summer research stipends are awarded each year if funds are available. Funds are at times available from special training and research grants awarded to faculty members of individual departments and from the General Research Support Grant. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine does not offer stipends for summer research at other institutions, but many medical students are assisted in obtaining support for summer programs of research and study at other institutions in this country and abroad. All degree candidates and postdoctoral fellows in the School of Medicine are invited to submit abstracts for the following awards: the Johns Hopkins Medical and Surgical Association Awards for Postdoctoral Investigation were established in 1981 by the School of Medicine to recognize excellence in research by clinical or research fellows in the School of Medicine. These awards are designated for clinical research, laboratory research with direct clinical relevance, and basic laboratory research. Taussig Research Award is awarded for clinical research with active or historical patient involvement. Lehninger Research Award is awarded for laboratory research without direct clinical relevance. Shanoff Research Award the award, consisting of an honorarium and a certificate, is made annually to a candidate in the M. The award will be given in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to research, preferably undertaken over more than one elective quarter. Thoroughness and originality of research are to be primary considerations in the selection of awardees. The award may be shared by two or more students who have collaborated on a research project.
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The cases were children aged less than 5 years with a diagnosis of a congenital malformation in medical records who were identified at four referral institutions. The controls were children of those ages diagnosed with other conditions (respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, disorders of the perinatal period and endocrine and metabolic diseases) at the same institutions. Information on parental exposure to pesticides (unspecified, except to note that glyphosate is the most commonly used) and other factors was collected by a maternal interview. This study has several important limitations, including the lumping of all different birth defects into a single case group, a small sample, self-reported pesticide exposure (including maternal report of paternal exposures), no information on specific pesticides, and no information on case and control response rates. Other herbicides of interest can induce fetal malformations but typically only at high doses that are toxic to pregnant women. As noted, the feeding of simulated Agent Orange mixtures to male mice produced no adverse effects in offspring (Lamb et al. Human data are generally lacking, however, and the sensitivity to developmental disruption in humans is less apparent, in part because contemporary studies of environmental dioxin exposure and birth defects have involved extremely low exposures. Moreover, the study of birth defects in any population is complicated by the relatively rarity of specific birth defects. These challenges are highlighted in the studies considered by the committee, which exhibit sometimes significant weaknesses that limit their usefulness-particularly in assessing the effects resulting from the exposures experienced by Vietnam veterans. Therefore, the recent studies did not change the previous conclusion of inadequate or insufficient evidence to support an association for birth defects overall in the children of Vietnam veterans. Studies investigating cancers; growth and physical parameters; motor development, cognitive, behavioral and socio-emotional outcomes; immune and allergic outcomes; and reproductive health are reviewed below. The treatment and supportive care of children who have cancer continue to improve. The 5-year survival rate for children who receive a cancer diagnosis has increased from less than 60% in the 1970s to more than 80% in 2013, the most recent year for which data are available. Leukemias are the most common cancer in children, accounting for about 29% of all childhood cancer cases. Other cancers in children include lymphomas, bone cancers, soft-tissue sarcomas, renal cancers, eye cancers, and adrenal cancers. In contrast with adult cancers, relatively little is known about the etiology of most childhood cancers, especially about potential environmental risk factors and the effects of parental exposures. The additional information available to the committees responsible for Update 1996 and Update 1998 did not change that conclusion. A0) is also referred to as acute myelogenous leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Update of Epidemiologic Literature New Vietnam-veteran, occupational, environmental, and case-control studies addressing childhood leukemias, central nervous system tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma, and retinoblastoma are addressed below. Controls were identified by telephone random-digit dialing and were matched to cases on race, sex, and age. The interview included questions about childhood environmental exposures, parental occupational exposures, family demographic characteristics, parental lifestyle and behavioral characteristics, and medical history. The parent was also asked if he or she was in contact with nuclear, chemical, and biological weaponry, radiation, radar or microwaves, or Agent Orange. Among the 440 cases that were eligible, 351 completed interviews, and, of those, 319 eligible cases had available information on parental occupation. Analyses were adjusted for the matching factors (age, sex, race) and family income, maternal education and recreational drug use, length of pregnancy and maternal spotting/bleeding/cramping during pregnancy. Maternal history of military service was associated 7 Rhabdomyosarcoma is a cancer of the muscle tissue. This report was based on a nationally ascertained case groups and included a parental interview asking questions about a wide array of potential risk factors and confounders, with specific questions on military service and Agent Orange exposure. Concerns include the use of a control group based on telephone random-digit dialing and the recall of potential Agent Orange exposure. The analysis of paternal Agent Orange exposure was based on a very small number of exposed cases, and the confidence intervals associated with the odds ratios were correspondingly broad. Interview data (telephone or in-person) on parental occupational histories were collected. The study included a relatively large number of subjects and used a common jobexposure matrix to assign potential pesticide exposure across studies. However, the analysis was limited by the low prevalence of parental exposure, precluding examination of dose categories and a breakdown of pesticide categories.
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Combining both these trials, 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and S100 Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management Diabetes Care Volume 41, Supplement 1, January 2018 high cardiovascular risk were randomized to canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for an average 3. Deaths from cardiovascular causes in the were significantly reduced in the liraglutide group (4. The empagliflozin and liraglutide trials further demonstrated significant reductions in cardiovascular death. Effect of antihyo pertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analyses. Blood pressure targets in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired fasting glucose: observations from traditional and bayesian randomeffects meta-analyses of randomized trials. Effects of blood-pressure-lowering treatment on outcome incidence in hypertension: 10 - should blood pressure management differ in hypertensive patients with and without diabetes mellitus? Effects of intensive blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular and renal outcomes: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. The implications of blood pressure measurement methods on treatment targets for blood pressure. Blood pressure-lowering treatment based on cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Achieving goal blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: conventional versus fixed-dose combination approaches. The relation of serum potassium concentration with cardiovascular events and mortality in community-living individuals. Renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension: review and clinical perspective. Effect of finerenone on albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy: a randomized clinical trial. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Cholesterol lowering with simvastatin improves prognosis of diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. Atherothrombotic risk stratification and the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and previous myocardial infarction. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Sex differences in diabetes and risk of incident coronary artery disease in healthy young and middle-aged adults. Randomized controlled trial comparing impact on platelet reactivity of twice-daily with once-daily aspirin in people with type 2 diabetes. Detection of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Guidance for industry diabetes mellitus: evaluating cardiovascular risk in new antidiabetic therapies to treat type 2 diabetes. Microvascular Complications and Foot Care: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd2018 Diabetes Care 2018;41(Suppl. Diabetic kidney disease typically develops after diabetes duration of 10 years in type 1 diabetes, but may be present at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Diagnosis of Diabetic Kidney Disease over time as the prevalence of diabetes increases in the U. In type 1 diabetes, remission of albuminuria may occur spontaneously and cohort studies evaluating associations of change in albuminuria with clinical outcomes have reported inconsistent results (22,23). Interventions Nutrition For people with nondialysis-dependent diabetic kidney disease, dietary protein intake should be approximately 0. S108 Microvascular Complications and Foot Care Diabetes Care Volume 41, Supplement 1, January 2018 necessary to help preserve muscle mass and function. The effects of glucose-lowering therapies on diabetic kidney disease have helped define A1C targets (see Table 6. Therefore, in some patients with prevalent diabetic kidney disease and substantial comorbidity, target A1C levels may be less intensive (1,37).
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The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice Chapter 2: Some Basic Genetics about the Mouse 23 2. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Practical applications of the bioinformatics toolbox for narrowing quantitative trait loci. Currer, Carol Linder, Jennifer Corrigan, Barbara Witham, Muriel Davisson, Jennifer Merriam, Kevin Flurkey About 100 years ago, C. Since then, advancements in genetics and technology have allowed scientists to develop derivitive inbred strains and strain panels that are tailored to specific research needs. Because of the wide variety of these derivative strains and the ability to construct precise allelic mixes- combined with the inherent advantages of the inbred strain-the laboratory mouse continues to be the most versatile and valuable tool in mammalian genetics a century after C. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the various categories of laboratory mice, including information about why and how they were developed and how they are used in research. Nomenclature Mouse strain nomenclature provides two types of technical information: the background or parental strains upon which the strain is based, and details about relevant genes and alleles. The strain name can also include such information as who developed the strain, where it was developed, and where it is currently maintained. When publishing results, it is important that investigators use the full strain name at least once so that readers can correctly interpret research results and precisely reproduce research. Strain definition and breeding terminology Throughout this handbook, we use very specific terminology related to strain definition and breeding. A stock of inbred mice that has been reproductively separated from the parental strain. A subline of mice that has been separated from the parental inbred strain for 20 generations or that has any known, fixed genetic difference, even if that difference is at one gene. A variant inbred strain of mice that differs from an established inbred strain by a mutation at only a single gene. Note: Sometimes the term "strain" is used as shorthand for "inbred strain," and sometimes the term "strain" is used to refer to an isolated breeding population that does not fulfill all criteria for an inbred strain. A reader should not assume that "strain" refers to an inbred strain unless it is stated explicitly. Term Definition Examples Incross Outcross A cross of 2 animals of the same homozygous genotype. A cross between any 2 siblings that are genetically different (that are not from the same inbred strain). A cross of 2 animals, one that is heterozygous at a locus under investigation, and one that is homozygous for one of those heterozygous alleles. Inbred strains and crosses Inbred mouse strains and the crosses created from them are the "workhorses" of mammalian genetics. They have been used by researchers since their creation early in the 20th century. The inbred strain is such a powerful research tool that, today, it is the foundation for most mouse models used in biomedical research. Inbred strains and substrains Mice were originally inbred to make expression of a trait as consistent as possible by removing genetic variance. A profound consequence of this genetic uniformity is that, when comparing two inbred strains under controlled conditions-the basic inbred strain experiment-any phenotypic difference between the strains must be due to a genotypic difference. Researchers have exploited the basic inbred strain experiment to greatly accelerate the development of our understanding of mammalian genetics. The homogeneity of the inbred strain also has enabled the derivation of powerful genetic "tools" such as genetic crosses and inbred strain panels. This genetic uniformity has become even more important with the advancement of genetic engineering. Because "noise" from the genetic background is minimized, the expression of engineered genes can be studied most effectively in inbred strains. Inbred strains An inbred strain is a line of mice that has been inbred by intercross sibling (filial) mating for at least 20 generations (F20).
- The size and connections of the pulmonary artery (the artery that takes blood to the lungs)
- Muscle rigidity
- Had a tick bite and develop weakness, numbness, or tingling, or heart problems
- Washing of the skin (irrigation) -- perhaps every few hours for several days
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These diseases may occur in the absence of any toxicant exposure, but all may be triggered by environmental factors, including toxicant exposure (Bronstein et al. Neuropathies can be purely motor, presenting as deficits in strength, but most often they present with the involvement of both motor and sensory fibers. Neuropathies are often symmetric and start with symptoms related to dysfunction of fibers that travel the greatest distance to their target organ. For that reason, the symptoms of neu ropathy often start in the digits and travel toward the torso. Many neuropathies also affect autonomic fibers and thus can result in changes in blood pressure and heart rate and in symptoms related to the control of digestion. The immediate effects of toxicants may involve all regions of the nervous system, whereas delayed effects are likely to be related to focal deficits. In this update, the chapter reviews data pertinent to persistent neurologic disorders of all types. Case identification of neurologic disorders is also an important consideration and is often difficult because there are few disorders for which there are specific diagnostic tests. Because the nervous sys tem is not readily accessible for biopsy, pathologic confirmation is usually not feasible. However, identifiable neurologic disorders always result in objective abnormalities that are reflected in anatomic or functional tests or discovered via clinical examination. The scientific evidence supporting the biologic plausibility of each category of disorders is also reviewed here. For citations new to this update that revisit previously studied populations, the relevant details on the experimental design can be found in Chapter 5. This section summarizes in a general way some of the information reviewed in the current update and, for completeness, includes pertinent information from prior updates. In addition, earlier studies in hepatocytes indicated that 2,4D affects aspects of mitochondrial energetics and mitochondrial calcium flux (Palmeira et al. Neuronal cultures treated with 2,4D exhibited decreased neurite extension associated with intracellular changes, including a decrease in microtubules, the inhibition of the polymerization of tubulin, disorganization of the Golgi apparatus, and the inhibi tion of ganglioside synthesis (Rosso et al. Those mechanisms are im portant for maintaining the connections between nerve cells, which are necessary for neuronal function and are involved in axon regeneration and recovery from peripheral neuropathy. As discussed in Chapter 4, extrapolating observations of cells in culture or in animal models to humans is complicated by differences in sensitivity and susceptibility among animals, strains, and species; by the lack of strong evidence of organ-specific effects occurring consistently across species; and by differences in the route, dose, duration, and timing of chemical exposures. Therefore, such results were not considered by the committee when weighing the evidence for specific conclusions. Results were presented for eight categories of mental and neurologic disorders and a ninth category for "other nervous disorders. Overall, the results of this study for hospital admissions due to all causes combined showed a small increase in rates for Vietnam veterans compared with the population of New Zealand. Historic concentrations for each dioxin congener were calculated from the median concentrations of serum samples and the known halflives associated with each congener. Difficulties in case identification and diagnosis, misclassification of exposures because of a lack of quantitative measures, subject ascertainment and selection bias, and uncontrolled confounding from many comorbid conditions are common weaknesses in the studies reviewed. No urinary marker of 2,4-D was associated with any deficit in any of the domains of neurobehavior that were tested. The cohort consisted of 237 individu als, half of whom were workers, and the other half were family members of the workers, employees of surrounding companies, and area residents. Subjects were excluded primarily for lack of German fluency, leading to 187 individuals with complete data on the neuropsy chological battery. However, fewer than 10% of the participants had detectable levels (limit of detection = 0. Exposure was dichotomized into high and low, with the 95th percentile for each congener serving as the cutpoint.
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Strong smoothelin expression is nearly exclusively observed in muscularis propria. Anti-smoothelin immunostaining can be helpful in differentiating benign (+) from malignant smooth muscle tumors (-), and other mimics (-). Somatostatin can also be found in gastrointestinal, bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine cells, thymic endocrine cells, and thyroid C-cells. Physiological role of somatostatin in the digestive tract: gastric acid secretion, intestinal absorption, and motility. Ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization of gastrin, somatostatin and serotonin in endocrine cells of human antral gastric mucosa. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the stomach with extensive somatostatin immunoreactivity. Sox 2 expression in brain tumors: a reflection of the neuroglial differentiation pathway. Sox10 is an active nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein, and shuttling is crucial for Sox10-mediated transactivation. Sox10-a marker for not only schwannian and melanocytic neoplasms but also myoepithelial cell tumors of soft tissue: a systematic analysis of 5134 tumors. Spectrin is an actin-crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. The encoded protein is primarily composed of 22 spectrin repeats which are involved in dimer formation. It forms weaker tetramer interactions than non-erythrocytic alpha spectrin, which may increase the plasma membrane elasticity and deformability of red blood cells. Mutations in the gene result in a variety of hereditary red blood cell disorders, including elliptocytosis type 2, pyropoikilocytosis, and spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Anti-spectrin is useful in the identification of Bone marrow erythrocytes and erythroid disorders. Immunohistochemical identification of erythroid precursors in paraffin embedded bone marrow sections: spectrin is a superior marker to glycophorin. Different sequences of expression of band 3, spectrin, and ankyrin during normal erythropoiesis and erythroleukemia. An immunocytochemical study of changes in the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton produced by stretching examined by the quick-freezing and deep-etching method. Solitary fibrous tumor Product Specifications Reactivity paraffin Visualization nuclear Control solitary fibrous tumor Stability up to 36 mos. Its expression is therefore ubiquitous, but it is particularly found in tissues with higher cell turnover. Stathmin-1 expression as a complement to p16 helps identify high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with increased specificity. This antibody identifies normal neuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine neoplasms. Diffuse, finely granular, cytoplasmic staining is observed, which probably correlates with the distribution of the antigen within neurosecretory vesicles. Anti-synaptophysin is an independent, broad-range marker of neural and neuroendocrine differentiation. Other Small Round Cell Tumors 277 277, 297 283 287 296 296 299 273, 289 274 275 Ewing Sarcoma vs. Anti-T-bet is a marker of mature T-cells and is expressed at very low levels in Thp cells and is absent in precursor T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cells. Scattered small lymphocytes in the interfollicular T-cell zone of reactive lymphoid tissue, including tonsil, lymph node, and spleen exhibited nuclear staining for anti-T-bet, with no anti-T-bet staining observed in germinal centers or mantle or marginal zones. In contrast, B-cell neoplasms derived from pre-germinal center or germinal center B-cells, including mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma are negative for T-bet. T-bet transcription factor detection facilitates the diagnosis of minimal hairy cell leukemia infiltrates in bone marrow trephines. T-bet, a T-cell associated transcription factor, is expressed in a subset of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Transcription factor expression in B-cell precursor-leukemia cell lines: preferential expression of T-bet.
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As a result, fortified foods generally ensured that the vast majority of the population would receive levels of these supplements adequate to avoid diseases, such as rickets. These new adequacy criteria are intended to help prevent the development of chronic degenerative diseases, such as osteoporosis, which generally take decades to manifest (Institute of Medicine, 1999, 2000; McDermott, 2000; Trumbo et al. The new levels, however, neither take into account environmental or lifestyle factors that destroy vital nutrients nor consider increasing the levels in the presence of serious disease. Currently, therapeutic use of supplements is not commonly practiced by conventional physicians, which is primarily due to lack of knowledge. Therapeutic prescription of supplements largely remains in the hands of naturopaths, herbalists, or the rare physician who has knowledge of alternative medicine. Recent research has shown that morning light treatment (administered in circadian time at 8. Light therapy appears to be most effective at 10,000 lux for at least 30 minutes, but takes about three weeks for therapeutic benefit to occur (Eastman et al. However, some technicians selling therapeutic light products claim that sunburn and eye damage is an issue created by researchers and not a side effect that their clients ever encounter. Technicians receive complaints of glare with bright light, but not with full spectrum. There are various devices that deliver full-spectrum or bright light that are available for home use (Breiling, 1996). Until the advent of antibiotic drugs, high-mountain sunshine was an accepted and widely used form of therapy for many sufferers of tuberculosis. Unfortunately, there is no definitive research on how much exposure is beneficial and how much is harmful. The theory holds that specific colors correlate to a particular disease or condition and can stimulate the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system. Colors are also believed to correlate to particular body parts, which are associated with discrete emotions (Lieberman, 1991). Colored light experienced through the retina is believed to induce states of relaxation and release of emotional trauma. Research in the 1970s found correlation between discrete colors and mood (Jacobs and Seuss, 1975; Reeves et al. In a trial that compared the use of drug therapy (desmopressin) and laser acupuncture for children (n = 10) five years or older with nocturnal enuresis, 75% of the children taking the pharmaceutical were dry at six months, while 65% of those receiving laser acupuncture were dry-offering an effective, noninvasive, alternative therapy (Radmayr et al. Interestingly, one study showed that laser acupuncture of the left foot at the point called "Bladder 67" activated the cuneus corresponding to Brodmann Area 18, as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging, while placebo stimulation had no effect (Siedentopf et al. Low-energy laser beams are used to stimulate traditional acupuncture points without the use of needles. The laser is applied for 15 to 90 seconds in a continuous or a pulsed manner (Kahn, 1994; Lieberman, 1991). The theory holds that points on the ear correlate to various locations throughout the body (Chen, 1993). In its original form, traditional acupuncture needles are applied to the ears to treat pain, dyslexia, and addictions. Many practitioners in Russia apply lasers to acupuncture points on the ear to reduce pain at distal sites. While in some instances needle auricular acupuncture may be more effective than laser, laser has the benefit of being pain free and nontraumatic, particularly for children (Brockhaus and Elger, 1990; Schlager et al. Most of the research that has been conducted on the technique is related to pain reduction, including pain from cancer (Alimi et al. The Relaxation System 169 sound ModAlities Oh the sisters of mercy they are not departed or gone. Leonard Cohen, 1975 musiC TheraPy Music therapy uses music in a controlled manner to influence the well-being of an individual with physiological or emotional symptoms. Music therapy facilitates the release of repressed emotions, reduces stress, relieves depression, and promotes relaxation. Music preferred by the patient is considered the least therapeutic because it matches their depressed mood. This finding correlates with studies showing that musical entrainment is the most effective type of music therapy (see Musical Entrainment below). Studies, which sometimes involve both imagery and music therapy, have shown a decrease in blood pressure, cortisol, mood disturbance, and anxiety and pain in critical care patients, and in patients before and after surgery (McKinney et al. Similarly, sound therapy, which reproduces sounds from nature and simply singing release emotion and reduce anxiety (Dewhurst-Maddock, 1993).