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Beyond services available through the educational system, families raising preschool and schoolaged children continue to need services to promote positive family functioning. Respite care has been shown to significantly reduce family stress and improve family functioning (146-147). Unfortunately, respite care, espe cially formalized and high-quality respite care, is not readily available in most communities. His or her body is changing, cognitive abilities are changing, peer groups are changing, and community expectations are changing. Because of the confusing nature of all these changes, adolescence often is the period when behavioral and mental health problems become more pronounced. Depression or anxiety, or both, can set in as the individual 26 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis struggles to cope with these changes. Increased opportunities to experience alcohol and/or drugs can lead to substance abuse problems. These are some of the most serious secondary conditions that research has identified for individuals with conditions associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (95). It is often during adolescence that families experience high levels of stress and tension. As such, the need for individual counseling (for both child and parent), family counseling, and a strong support network becomes more crucial. Because adolescents will soon be leaving the safety and structure of the educational system, voca tional and transitional services become essential during this stage. These services often represent a shift from academic skills and achievements to daily living skills, including employment skills. It is very important that these services be started in early adolescen ce, and not left until the individual is about to age-out of the educational system. In addition, beyond teaching the specific skills that go with a particular job, it might be necessary to explicitly teach those skills related to being a good employee. Most individuals will learn these skills through basic maturity and observational learning. As for all adolescents, sexual behavior often becomes a critical issue during this stage. Failure to address these issues can have serious, and possibly life-threatening consequences for the affected individual, his or her family, and any children resulting from unintended pregnancies. However, these same deficits demand that when they do encounter the justice system, their deficits should be taken into account during all aspects of justice proceedings. Such programs should be based on scientifically-based research findings that evaluate practicality as well as effec tiveness. Everyday needs such as transportation issues, job assistance, housing assistance, medication reminders, money assistance, and support and 27 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis assistance when unpredicted issues arise should continue to be monitored and supported. Eligibility criteria are generally based on levels of intelli gence, as well as functional limitations in at least three areas associated with skills of daily living. For example, most states have long waiting lists for Section 8 housing because of both the high demand and great need often lead ing to a shortage of rental units. Also of concern are the high proportions of non pregnant childbearing-aged women whose drink ing patterns exceed safe levels as defined by public health agencies (150-151). Currently more that half of all women of childbearing age (18 through 44 years of age) report alcohol use, and one in eight report binge drinking in the past month. Many of these women are sexually active and are not taking effective measures to prevent pregnancy. These women are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy in that they could have an unrecognized pregnancy and continue drinking early in preg nancy at levels that are harmful to the fetus. One public health strategy for preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies is to identify characteristics of women at greatest risk of having a child affected by prenatal alcohol exposure and implement prevention programs in subpopulations with higher proportions of these identified risk factors. Over the past 20 years, concerted efforts have been made to identify factors among childbearingaged women associated with harmful patterns of alcohol consumption. Additional studies using cross-sectional survey data and special populations have extended our understanding of char 28 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Guidelines for Referral and Diagnosis acteristics associated with childbearing-aged women at high risk for having an alcohol-exposed pregnancy based on current drinking patterns. Being at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy correlated significantly with being (or having ever been) a smoker, having a history of inpatient treatment for drugs or alcohol, having a history of inpatient mental health treatment, having multiple sex partners, and having experienced recent physical abuse. Primary prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies requires the accurate identification of women who are drinking at thresholds that have been associated with adverse pregnancy and infant out comes before pregnancy occurs.
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Biodegradation rates in marine water may be slower than those reported in freshwater. Each step requires a separate group of genes (Afghan and Chau 1989; Robinson and Lenn 1994; Sondossi et al. This pathway is further detailed in Figure 6-3 (Abramowicz 1990; Robinson and Lenn 1994). The initial attack of the biphenyl structure involves addition of O2 by a biphenyl 2,3-oxygenase forming the corresponding unstable dihydrodihydroxybiphenyl, subsequent dehydrogenation to the dihydroxybiphenyl, followed by meta ring cleavage to the corresponding chlorinated benzoic acid and a 5-carbon hydroxy-acid (Abramowicz 1990; Flanagan and May 1993; Robinson and Lenn 1994; Sylvestre and Sondossi 1994; Thomas et al. A study by Flanagan and May (1993) reported the presence of chlorobenzoic acids, as well as other metabolites where the biphenyl ring is retained and in contaminated sediment cores taken from the Hudson River, but not in uncontaminated cores obtained upstream from the site of contamination. Tetrachlorobiphenyls (major components in Aroclors 1016 and 1242) are intermediate in persistence. More than 50% loss was reported in 5 months, particularly among specific diand trichlorobiphenyls. The incubation of Aroclor 1242 in aerobic Hudson River sediment resulted in an enrichment of di- and trichlorobiphenyl congeners with di-ortho chlorines on one ring or di-para chlorines; other di- and trichlorobiphenyls in the mixture were readily degraded (Williams and May 1997). For example, in two soils containing >10% organic matter, only 5% biodegradation of Aroclor 1254 was observed after 1 year (Iwata et al. However, >25% biodegradation was observed after 1 year in a loamy, sandy soil containing only 0. In a controlled laboratory aerobic microcosm sediment/water system, the half-lives (first-order kinetics) of Aroclors 1232, 1248, and 1254 were 61, 78, and 82 days, respectively, with no addition of substrates; 33, 39, and 36 days, respectively, with the addition of an amenable substrate; and 27, 32, and 36 days, respectively, with the addition of an amenable substrate and adapted microbes (Portier and Fujisaki 1988). Other studies report enhanced degradation rates in the presence of an added carbon source, such as sodium acetate, due to cometabolism (Pal et al. This generally remained the same as the biphenyl ring is not metabolized and only chlorine is released during reductive dechlorination. The profile shows a decrease in concentration of the more highly chlorinated congeners and a corresponding increase in overall proportion of the less chlorinated congeners (Bedard and Quensen 1995). For example, Aroclor 1242 added to anaerobic Hudson River sediment was incubated for 73 weeks; at the end of this period, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexachlorinated congeners were reduced by 11, 73, 66, 73, and 94%, respectively, while the concentration of monochlorobiphenyl congeners increased by 76% (Anid et al. The original homolog distribution of Aroclor 1254 versus that after 13 months incubation in anaerobic sediment (100 mg/L treatment) is as follows (in mole percent): tri-, 2 versus 18%; tetra-, 22 versus 51%; penta-, 48 versus 22%; hexa-, 21 versus 8. During reductive dechlorination, anaerobic bacteria use chlorine as the terminal electron acceptor in a twoelectron transfer reaction involving the addition of the electron to the carbon-chlorine bond, followed by chlorine (Cl-) loss and subsequent hydrogen abstraction. The process of reductive dechlorination is illustrated in Figure 6-4 (Abramowicz 1990). Hydrogen (H2) is assumed to be directly or indirectly the electron donor and water the source of protons (Nies and Vogel 1991), although other sources are possible. For reductive dechlorination to occur, a low redox potential similar to methanogenesis (Eh <-400 mV) and the absence of oxygen are thought to be required (May et al. The most important structural factors determining whether a chlorine atom will be removed from a particular congener during anaerobic biodegradation include the position of the chlorine in relation to the opposite phenyl ring, the configuration of the surrounding chlorine atoms, the chlorine configuration of the opposite ring and, as summarized above, the total number of chlorine atoms. There are at least eight distinct, documented, reductive dechlorination pathways or processes, each resulting in a different congener distribution profile. In any particular anaerobic environment, one or several of these processes may be occurring depending on the specificity that is developed by the adapted microbial population for dechlorination at a Table 6-9. Flanked para Meta of 2, 3 and 2, 3, 4 groups 1242 1248 1254 1260 Upper Hudson Lower Hudson New Bedford 513 Table 6-9. In Silver Lake sediment contaminated with both Aroclor 1254 and 1260, meta and para chlorines were also preferentially removed (Williams 1994). The rate, extent, and specificity of anaerobic dechlorination can vary greatly even in the same sediment based on a number of environmental factors (Wiegel and Wu 2000). Below a certain threshold concentration (<50 ppm), the rate of dechlorination is often very slow or non-quantifiable (Quensen et al. Other authors report that desorption may not be as important given the slow rate of dechlorination of the more chlorinated congeners (Alder et al.
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Homogentisic acid builds up in the skin and connective tissues and is excreted in the urine, causing the dark color. Patients typically have a good prognosis, although many suffer from arthritis as well as heart disease and kidney/ prostate stones. Cystinuria is caused by a defect in an amino acid transporter in the renal tubules. This is an inherited defect that affects the absorption of four amino acids: cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine. This disorder is not associated with the jaundice or hematologic abnormalities seen in this patient. Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal-recessive inherited disease due to a deficiency of aldolase B, which causes an accumulation of fructose1-phosphate. The decrease in available phos- phate leads to inhibition of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. It is usually diagnosed in early childhood, when children are weaned from formula to regular table food. Hereditary spherocytosis is caused by a variety of molecular defects in genes that code for spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4. Lactase deficiency can be due to either an inherited intolerance or an age-dependent acquired intolerance of the sugar lactose. Acquired lactase deficiency (decreased expression with increased age) is more common in Africans and Asians. The most common way to determine lung maturity is by the lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio of the amniotic fluid. Elastase is an endogenous proteolytic enzyme in the lung that is normally broken down by antitrypsin. In patients with a1-antitrypsin deficiency, there is an increased level of elastase, which leads to lung Biochemistry HigH-Yield PrinciPles Chapter 2: Biochemistry · Answers 51 tissue destruction and emphysema. Liver cirrhosis also occurs as a result of the increased level of elastase in the liver. Cilial dysfunction may result in decreased mucus clearance from the lungs and may predispose patients to recurrent respiratory infections. Phosphatidylglycerol is a compound measured in amniotic fluid to determine fetal lung maturity, and is used in conjunction with the lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio. The cells described above are in metaphase of the mitosis (M) phase of the cell cycle, which is characterized by chromosomes migrating and lining up in the middle of the cell. In metaphase, the nuclear envelope has disintegrated and the mitotic spindle moves into the nuclear area. Vincristine acts by binding to tubulin and blocking formation of microtubules, which are required to form the mitotic spindle. In the S phase the chromosomes are not vertically aligned in the cell Answer B is incorrect. Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, a class of cell cyclenonspecific antineoplastic drugs. Fragile X syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that most closely follows an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. The disease is characterized by mental retardation and physical features such as macroorchidism (large testicles), long face, large mandible, and large, everted ears. Patients with premutations have from 52 to 230 repeats and lack the disease phenotype. Lane C would best represent the Southern blot of a woman who carries a premutation for fragile X and one normal X. Biochemistry Chapter 3 Embryology 53 HigH-YiEld PrinciPlEs 54 Section I: General Principles · Questions Q u e st i o n s Embryology 1. A physician is asked to evaluate a 5-year-old girl who has developed a mass in her neck. During the interview, he learns that the mass appeared within the past few months and has been enlarging; however, it causes no pain or discomfort.
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Key A Inflorescence appearing terminal; inflorescence bract not appearing to be a continuation of the culm. Key B 2 Leaf blades septate (sometimes obscure in dried specimens; if so, rest leaf on hard surface and run fingernail over it lengthwise). Key D 5 Heads turbinate to hemispherical, 3-15 flowered; [subgenus Juncus, section Ozophyllum]. Leaves with incomplete septae; heads about 10 mm diameter; tips of dehisced capsules united; [subgenus Juncus, section Iridifolii]. Sandy soil at edge of salt marsh, presumably only a waif; native of the Neotropics north to sw. Moist or wet sites, including disturbed areas such as roadsides, paths, and fields. Marshes, calcareous seepage wetlands, interdune swales, wet open ground, stream banks, gravel bars. Pine savannas, pine flatwoods, mesic areas in sandhill-pocosin ecotones, roadsides, low fields in the Piedmont, wet meadows, interdune swales, freshwater and oligohaline tidal marshes, ditches. Ditches, depressions, ponds, especially is seasonally flooded sites that draw down early in the growing season. Cosmopolitan, and polymorphic; a number of varieties have sometimes been recognized, but need additional study. The scabrid leaf blades and large seeds quickly separate this species from the other long-tailed rushes. It should be looked for along seepage slopes and bogs in the fall-line sandhills and the outer Coastal Plain. Lake, pond and stream margins, swamps, bogs, seepage slopes, wet meadows, ditches. Marshy shores, stream and pond margins, along puddles in wet, disturbed clearings, ditches. Margins of ponds and lakes, depressions in savannas and flatwoods, wet, disturbed clearings, roadside ditches. Seeps and calcareous wet meadows, usually over linestone or dolomite, disturbed wet or moist ground; native of Eurasia. Usually in very wet, often inundated sites, bogs, ditches, rooting in clay or peat. Brackish and freshwater marshes, bogs, wet prairies, interdune swales, ditches, wet, open places. Hardwood swamps, cypress swamps and stringers with seasonally flowing water, adjacent ditches. Ditches, along pond and stream margins, seepage slopes, disturbed open areas, sea-level fens, interdunal swales, Atlantic white-cedar swamps. Moist soil, marshes, margin of streams, ponds, lakes and swamps, low meadows(overlooked and probably more widespread and common than shown). Coastal tidal marshes, forming dense stands at and above mean high tide, above the Sporobolus alterniflorus zone. Wet, open, disturbed areas, ditches, sandhill pocosin ecotones and seepage bogs, savannas and wet pine flatwoods, wet meadows. Inflorescences simple, with an occasional pedicel branching from the base of a flower; apical appendages of seeds 0. Dulichium 3 Inflorescence terminal, more-or-less scapose (though immediately subtended by leafy bracts); leaves predominantly basal, not 3-ranked; perianth bristles absent (Cyperus) or present (Schoenus); [tribe Cypereae]. Scleria 5 Achene mostly brown, black, or tan; style base persistent as a differentiated tubercle (Bulbostylis, Eleocharis, Rhynchospora) or not (Cladium, Eriophorum, Fuirena, Isolepis, Cyperus, Schoenoplectus, Scirpus, Trichophorum); spikelets mostly or all bisexual; [subfamily Cyperoideae]. Eleocharis 7 Leaves with well-developed blades; spikelets few to many per stem, usually subtended by foliaceous bracts. Bulbostylis 8 Perianth bristles present (rarely absent in species without capillary leaves); spikelets 1-2-flowered (several-many-flowered in some species without capillary leaves); leaves capillary to broad; [tribe Schoeneae]. Schoenoplectiella 12 Achenes minutely pitted in longitudinal lines; [tribe Cypereae] 13 Spikelets in a loose cluster (not spherical). Bulbostylis 14 Plants moderate to very robust, 7-30 dm tall; leaves 30-150 cm long, 1. Scirpus georgianus 9 Achene subtended by a modified perianth of either bristles, 3 stalked paddle-like scales, or 1-2 broad-based scales (in addition to the scales of the spikelets). Cyperus 18 Achene subtended by a perianth of 3 stalked paddle-like scales; plants 2-7 dm tall; [tribe Fuireneae].
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The antibodies bind to fetal neutrophils, which express an antigen inherited from the father that is absent in the mother. These maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies can result in severe neutropenia before and after birth. One such outstanding laboratory is the American Red Cross North Central Blood Services in St. We generally do so if the neutropenia is severe (<500/L) for several days, if it is in the range of 500 to 999/L for approximately 1 week, or if the patient has a bacterial infection. A dose of 10 g/kg given subcutaneously once daily for about 3 days will usually result in an absolute neutrophil count greater than 1000/L. Subsequent doses may be needed to keep the absolute neutrophil count above 1000/L. The duration of the condition roughly corresponds to the disappearance of maternal antineutrophil antibody from the neonate, which sometimes takes up to 2 months or so. These mutations each produce a gene product that folds into an incorrect three-dimensional shape. The abnormal neutrophil elastase protein accumulates in neutrophils and damages or kills these cells before they are fully mature. The phenotype of Kostmann syndrome is similar to that of severe congenital neutropenia type 1 but is more clinically heterogenous. Expected values, also called reference ranges, for eosinophil counts on the day of birth are a function of gestational age, increasing gradually through the second and third trimesters. The 95th percentile value (the highest expected limit) at 34 weeks is about 1100/L. Reference ranges are shown for eosinophil counts of neonates on the day of birth, according to gestational age. The lower and upper lines represent the 5th and the 95th percentile values, respectively, and the center line represents the mean value. Reference ranges for blood concentrations of eosinophils and monocytes during the neonatal period defined from over 63,000 records in a multihospital health-care system. Although the eosinophil count has increased significantly from that measured on the day of birth, the value is within the expected range. The reference range for blood eosinophil concentration during the first 28 days after birth is shown in Figure 12-15. If the eosinophil count of the neonate discussed in Questions 39 and 40 were 3500/L, the term eosinophilia would properly apply. What are the more common conditions that might be associated with such a high eosinophil count in this neonate? Eosinophils are effector cells involved in allergic and nonallergic inflammatory conditions. Circulating eosinophils are derived from myelocytic progenitors within the marrow and within extramedullary sites as well. After exiting the site of production and entering the blood, eosinophils circulate for approximately 1 day (TЅ 18 hours), after which they transmigrate to tissues, primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, where they produce cytokines and chemokines. Several pathologic conditions in neonates are associated with eosinophilic tissue infiltration, and these conditions are often accompanied by blood eosinophilia. The conditions include erythema toxicum, neonatal eosinophilic pustulosis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Other inflammatory conditions associated with eosinophilia are neonatal eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic colitis, subcutaneous fat necrosis with eosinophilic granules, a variety of infectious diseases, and necrotizing enterocolitis after erythrocyte transfusion. A slight increase can occasionally be expected in preterm infants corresponding to the time weight gain is established. Reference ranges are shown for eosinophil counts of neonates for the first 28 days after birth. You are asked to see a healthy term female newborn shortly after birth because the mother has von Willebrand disease. First, you might inquire if the mother knows the type of von Willebrand disease that she has. You should also find out if she had any bleeding problems as a baby and about her own bleeding history. Perhaps the parents already know that von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited disorder of coagulation, with a prevalence as high as 1% of the general population.
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Positive reinforcer An event whose presentation increases the probability of a response that it follows. Primary reinforcer A reinforcing event that does not depend on learning to achieve its reinforcing properties. Problem-solving skills training Cognitively based treatment in which individuals are trained to approach interpersonal situations. Training focuses on the requirements of a particular task or problem, the behaviors that need to be performed, the alternative courses of action that are available, the consequences of these actions, and then selection of a particular solution. Individuals engage in self-instruction to guide themselves through the problem-solving approach. Punishment Presentation of an aversive event or removal of a positive event contingent upon a response that decreases the probability of the response. Punishment trap A nontechnical term provided in this book to note that a parent (or teacher) is often trapped by a punishment contingency because use of punishment on the part of parents is invariably reinforced. This negative reinforcement of parent behavior (child cessation of the behavior) is immediate, contingent on the parent punishing of the child. The trap for parents is that this negative reinforcement controls their behavior and is likely to increase the use of punishment for child deviance in the future. Reinforcement An increase in the probability or likelihood of a response when the response is immediately followed by a particular consequence. The consequence can be either the presentation of a positive reinforcer or the removal of a negative reinforcer. Glossary 379 Reinforcement of alternative behavior Providing reinforcing consequences for a specific response that will compete with or is incompatible with the undesirable response, such as reinforcing cooperative play of a child with a sibling in an effort to reduce arguing and fighting. Reinforcement of changes in quality or characteristics Providing consequences for changes in intensity or characteristics of the behavior. A child may have very intense tantrums that include throwing things, hitting other people, crying, and screaming. For example, the child may receive reinforcement for whispering rather than shouting or screaming. Reinforcement of functionally equivalent behavior Behavior serves one or more functions. Functionally equivalent behavior refers to using the same consequences to support prosocial, positive behavior rather than deviant behavior. For example, tantrums, interrupting parents, and arguing receives attention from parents. With this schedule, the parents walk away from the child during these behaviors whenever possible but give attention and praise to the child when these behaviors are not going on. Reinforcement of low response rates Providing consequences for a reduction in the frequency of behavior over time or in the period of time. Reinforcement of other behavior Providing reinforcing consequences for all responses except the undesirable behavior of interest. Reinforcer sampling Providing the client with a sample or small portion of a reinforcer. The sample increases the likelihood that the entire event will be earned, used, or purchased. Reinforcer sampling occasionally is used to increase use of available reinforcers and hence the behaviors required to earn reinforcers. Reinforcer sampling is a special case of response priming in which the purpose is to develop or increase the utilization of an event as a reinforcer. Resistance to extinction the extent to which a response is maintained once reinforcement is no longer provided. Reflexes are respondents because their performance automatically follows certain stimuli. The connection between such unconditioned respondents and the antecedent events that control them is unlearned. Through respondent (classical) conditioning, respondents may come under the control of otherwise neutral stimuli. Respondent conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral (conditioned) stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits a reflex response. After the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly followed by the unconditioned stimulus, the association between the two stimuli is learned.
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This concept was nicely captured by referring to the aggressive child as "the victim and architect of a coercive system" (Patterson, 1976a). Fourth, the work focused on conditional probabilities rather than causes; that is, rather than saying that a particular parent (or child) behavior caused the next behavior in a sequence of coercive interactions, the work noted that actions and reactions increased the probability that the behavior would move in one direction rather than another and toward some end rather than another. This is exactly what was shown in research: That is, probabilities change; given x (behavior of the parent), y (behavior of the child) is much more likely to occur. This is a much more careful analysis than rigidly expecting a single action to invariably have a single outcome. There is much more to this work than can be mentioned here, including study of the influences of delinquent peers on child aggression and of parental stress on child-rearing practices, the stability of aggression and coercive practices over time, and the different types of aggressive behavior (early versus later onset, children who steal versus those who fight) (Reid et al. From the perspective of the parent, the work emphasized "inept" parenting practices. The ways parents gave commands, ignored prosocial behavior, punished behavior, and other characteristics contributed to coercion and helped escalate aggression in the home. Several studies showed that specific inept child-rearing practices contributed to aggressive behavior and that altering these practices significantly reduced aggressive behavior and related conduct problems (Dishion & Andrews, 1995; Dishion, Patterson, & Kavanagh, 1992; Forgatch, 1991). These were powerful demonstrations in the sense that parenting practices were shown to be causally related to aggressive behavior in children. Most of such work is cross-sectional (demonstrated at one point in time) and correlational (merely showing an association). Once operant principles were extended beyond the laboratory, applications in the home, school, and various institutional settings proliferated and continued to convey that principles of operant conditioning and the methods used to evaluate the treatments were quite useful in changing behavior. Whether or not these methods focused on parenting, the emerging evidence supported the intervention approach. These programs, mentioned later, continued for an extended period, generated multiple outcome studies, and helped establish the intervention. Readers already conversant with operant conditioning and its applications in everyday life may wish to skip or skim this chapter. Chapters 3 and 4 move from principles to techniques and identify a large set of interventions for application in the home. The techniques are illustrated with examples that emphasize programs implemented in the home. Chapter 3 emphasizes positive reinforcement techniques and how they can be implemented effectively. Key areas that are reviewed include research on the effects of treatment; child, parent, family, and treatment factors that contribute to therapeutic change; and the mechanisms that are likely to be responsible for therapeutic change. Finally, this chapter discusses the limitations of current research and what is not known that is important to know. Perhaps the most central issue that can emerge in treatment is that the intervention may not work or work well enough for a given child and family. However, there are many options for what to do to repair failing programs during the course of treatment. Based on findings, scope of the evidence, and applications, what can be concluded about treatment? Key chal- Introduction 31 lenges and limitations are also discussed, both in relation to research and in clinical application and extension of treatment. Summary and Conclusions this first chapter began with an overview of the social, emotional, and behavioral problems that children can experience. The problems and their prevalence provide a context for developing effective treatments. Unfortunately, most psychotherapies developed for children and adolescents that are in use in various clinics, schools, and institutional settings have never been studied in research. Recently, there has been an effort to delineate evidence-based treatments-therapies that do have evidence in their behalf. Indeed, probably no other psychotherapy for children has its strength of empirical support.
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Additionally, animal studies show that the gustatory receptors stimulated by sucrose lead to an activation of the endogenous opioid systems in the newborn brainstem, with reduced pain transmission to the thalamocortical circuits. These mechanisms are unlikely to lead to increased beta-endorphin levels in peripheral plasma, as noted in preterm newborns. Additional evidence for this mechanism is demonstrated by the fact that naloxone blocks the analgesic effects of sucrose. Until further evidence becomes available, the consensus opinion remains that sucrose induces effective analgesia for acute pain resulting from skin-breaking procedures in term and preterm newborns. Recently, however, safety of the long-term repeated use of sucrose solutions has been called into question, and protocols should be developed to limit sucrose dosing. Analgesic effects of sweet-tasting solutions for infants: current state of equipoise. The goals of perioperative analgesic approaches are the relief of pain, the maintenance of physiologic stability, and the prevention of adverse events such as hypoventilation or shallow respiration owing to diaphragmatic splinting, paralytic ileus, protein catabolism, and pulmonary hypertension. The management of postoperative pain should ideally start before the operative procedure, with consideration given to the size and alignment of the surgical incision; the choice of anesthetic agents; infiltration of the surgical site with lidocaine or bupivacaine; and, if possible, the placement of an epidural catheter before or after surgery. Use of analgesics may improve postoperative outcomes with fewer adverse events, shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, rapid return of gastrointestinal function, and reduced incidence of postoperative apnea and other complications. Opiates are the mainstay of therapy; however, because of their known side effects, including respiratory depression, other drugs such as ketorolac and acetaminophen are being studied. Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm babies undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. Other options include epidural or caudal anesthesia with bupivacaine, or bupivacaine mixed with fentanyl infusions continued into the postoperative period. The use of nurse-controlled analgesia using a patient-controlled analgesia pump is also under investigation. Are the doses of morphine and fentanyl for postoperative analgesia in neonates similar to the doses used for older children? Neonates may receive lower morphine infusion rates than older children after surgery, starting as low as 0. Neonates with cyanotic congenital heart defects also require lower morphine infusion rates than neonates undergoing noncardiac surgery. Depending on the dose and other patient characteristics, fentanyl and sufentanil provide variable degrees of suppression of autonomic and hormonal/metabolic responses to major surgery in neonates, although fentanyl may increase the risk of postoperative hypothermia. Critically ill neonates, whose vascular tone depends on sympathetic outflow, may become hypotensive after bolus doses of fentanyl or morphine. Randomized controlled trials show no differences in the postoperative analgesia produced by bolus doses versus continuous infusions of morphine; however, apnea or other complications were greater in the bolus-dosing groups. Intravenous boluses of opioids should be given slowly (over 15 to 30 minutes) to postoperative neonates. Developmental pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites in neonates, infants and young children. The majority of preterm neonates are capable of glucuronidating morphine, but birth weight and gestational and postnatal age influence the hepatic capacity for glucuronidation. Term and preterm neonates and older infants produce relatively greater proportions of morphine-3-glucuronide, which acts as an opioid antagonist and has a prolonged half-life. Older children and adults produce morphine-6-glucuronide, which is a potent analgesic, with 20 times the analgesic potency of morphine itself. Morphine-6-glucuronide was not detected in the plasma of any neonate, which may explain why neonates require relatively high plasma concentrations of unchanged morphine for effective analgesia. Experience of remifentanil in extremely low-birth-weight babies undergoing laparotomy. A meta-analysis performed from the reported pharmacokinetics parameters showed an increased volume of distribution for morphine, estimated to be 2. In contrast, the half-life and plasma clearance rates for morphine are clearly related to age, secondary to maturational changes in hepatic and renal function.
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Have the three types of high-frequency ventilation been compared in clinical trials? Because there have been no comparison trials, each type has its advocates and critics. What happens to tidal volume delivery to the alveolus when frequency is increased during high-frequency oscillation? With standard mechanical ventilation or spontaneous breathing, minute ventilation = frequency Ч tidal volume. In high-frequency ventilation, minute ventilation = (frequency) Ч (tidal volume)2 this question emphasizes the importance of understanding the differences between high-frequency oscillation and conventional ventilation. In conventional ventilation increasing the rate will increase carbon dioxide elimination in most cases. With high-frequency ventilation turning up the rate generally causes a decrease in minute ventilation owing to the loss of tidal volume delivery. When ventilation is inadequate during high-frequency ventilation, turning the rate down can increase carbon dioxide elimination. Rather, inhaled gas spikes down the center of the airway, whereas the exhaled carbon dioxide moves along the periphery in a circuitous fashion. As frequencies increase, a whirlpool may actually arise within the airway that literally pulls the small-volume puffs of gas to a very deep region of the lung. Just as in conventional ventilation, changes in respiratory system impedance affect carbon dioxide elimination during high-frequency ventilation. There are several types of high-frequency ventilation, but the device used may be less important than the ventilatory strategy with which the device is used. If the lung is poorly inflated, a strategy of lung recruitment (increased mean airway pressure compared with that being used on a conventional ventilator) is appropriate. If air leakage is present or the lung is overinflated, a strategy that minimizes intrathoracic pressure is important, and a lower mean airway pressure may be the most appropriate approach. Because of the frequencies used and the small tidal volumes, these changes seem to be significantly magnified with highfrequency ventilation compared with conventional ventilation. In neonates with poor lung inflation, should high-frequency oscillation be used at lower, the same, or higher Paw than that being used on conventional ventilation? High-frequency oscillation allows the use of higher Paws than conventional ventilation because the small tidal volumes promote ventilation without causing lung overinflation. This approach has been studied in animal models of hyaline membrane disease and has been shown to improve lung inflation, decrease acute lung injury, decrease pulmonary air leaks, and promote survival. Often referred to as a "high mean airway pressure strategy," the real goal is not a high Paw but rather optimal lung inflation. Clinically, the goal is to promote lung recruitment while avoiding lung overinflation, cardiac compromise, and lung atelectasis. Open lung approach associated with high-frequency oscillatory or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation improves respiratory function and minimizes lung injury in healthy and injured rats. When high-frequency ventilation is used, what measurements help guide choice of ventilation settings? If the chest radiograph shows more than nine posterior ribs of inflation, flattened diaphragms, a small heart, or very clear lung fields, the lung may be overinflated. Similarly, if the Paw is high and the FiO2 is low, then Paw should be decreased before FiO2. If the chest radiograph shows fewer than seven posterior ribs of inflation, domed diaphragms, a normal heart size, or diffuse radiopacification, the lung may be underinflated. The assessment of cardiac function is also important for the safe use of high-frequency ventilation. Monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, urine output, and capillary refill can help alert the care provider to changes in cardiac output. What adverse events have been reported with the use of high-frequency ventilation? Although meta-analysis does not confirm this finding, the concern remains, and further studies are needed in this regard. The complication of necrotizing tracheobronchitis was reported with early models of high-frequency ventilation.
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The proper taxonomic treatment and associated nomenclature to apply to these plants remains unclear (see synonymy). Apparently endemic to the Coastal Plain of the Carolinas; potentially to be expected in. Smith) Bogin Z, misapplied] * Sagittaria montevidensis Chamisso & Schlechtendal. Most of the collections from the southeastern United States are old collections around major seaports, suggesting that this plant was introduced on the ballast of sailing ships. The distribution of this species is primarily in the Mississippi drainage; occurrences east of the Appalachians may be introduced, either by humans or by waterfowl. Isozyme studies by Hauber & Legй (1999) provide evidence that this taxon should be given species status; its genetic identity with var. Ottelia 2 Leaves straplike, elongate, linear, the sides parallel and not differentiated into petiole and blade. Blyxa 5 Leaves with longitudinal rows of lacunae on each side of the midvein; leaves rounded at apex; seeds smooth; flowers unisexualVallisneria 1 Leaves along the stem or at its summit. Halophila 6 Leaves at many nodes along the stem, opposite or in whorls of 2-8, < 4 cm long; [freshwater]. Elodea 8 Leaves broadened and sheathing at base, narrowing upward via "shoulders"; perianth absent. Egeria 9 Leaves mostly 1-2 cm long, toothed with stout, sharp teeth on the margins and also on conical bases along the midrib beneath; fresh leaves noticeably rough to the touch; leaf whorls crowded on terminal portions of stems, remote on older stems; petals translucent, 25 mm long. Hydrilla 2 Blyxa Noroсa ex Thouars 1806 (Blyxa) A genus of 9 species, aquatic herbs, of Asia, Africa, and Australia. John S] Elodea Michaux 1803 (Waterweed) A genus of about 5-12 species, aquatic herbs, native of temperate America. Richard 1814 (Hydrilla) A monotypic genus, an aquatic herb, native to the Old World. Identification notes: Counts of leaf-teeth do not include the broadened, sheathing base of the leaf. Haynes (1979) reports that this species cannot tolerate pollution and is apparently declining in abundance. This species is apparently a rather recent introduction to North America, now widespread in. Quiet waters of streams and bayous, and a weed in rice fields; native of Asia and Australia. Kцnig (Turtlegrass) A genus of 2 species, seagrasses, of tropical and warm temperate waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Indian/Pacific oceans. The distinctiveness of this taxon has been defended by Les et al (2008) on morphological and molecular grounds. Scheuchzeria Linnaeus (Scheuchzeria, Pod-grass) A monotypic genus, circumboreal in arctic and cold temperate regions. Zostera Linnaeus 1753 (Eelgrass) A genus of about 12 species, aquatic herbs, of nearly cosmopolitan distribution. Here circumscribed following recent molecular studies to include Zannichellia (Lindqvist et al. Potamogeton 2 Stipules adnate to the blade for at least 2/3 the length of the stipule; peduncle flexible, the flowering spike submersed; submersed leaves opaque, channeled, stiff; floating leaves absent. Stuckenia Potamogeton Linnaeus 1753 (Pondweed) A genus of about 80 species, aquatic herbs, nearly cosmopolitan. Key A Stipular sheaths of submersed leaves free from the leaf blade base, or with only a few adnate, the ligule not obvious. Key C Key A 1 1 Leaves stiffish, conspicuously 2-ranked, auriculate-lobed to rounded at the junction with the stipule, with 20-60 fine veins. Submersed leaves 3-13 veined; stipules of submersed leaves not adnate to the leaf base; floating leaves rounded at apex. Petiole junction with leaf distinctly pale in color; floating leaves ovate, oblong-ovate, cordate at base, rarely tapering. Haynes Z] Zannichellia Linnaeus 1753 (Horned Pondweed) A genus of about 5 species, aquatic herbs, nearly cosmopolitan. Identification notes: Zannichellia is sometimes confused with other aquatics, such as Ruppia and narrow-leaved Potamogeton. Potamogeton has at least some leaves alternate; Zannichellia and Ruppia are opposite-leaved.