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By contrast, almost all of Cleveland saw increases in vacancy except for a handful of reviving pockets near downtown and University Circle. Both Cleveland and Baltimore saw increases, although small ones, in the number of both lowand high-vacancy tracts. Louis, saw increases in low-vacancy tracts without any increase in high-vacancy areas. These cities are among the legacy cities showing the strongest recovery in other respects, including house price growth and an influx of well-educated members of the millennial generation. Although many legacy cities are showing strong signs of revival, this recovery tends to be limited to a few parts of the city-downtowns, areas around major universities and medical centers, a handful of nearby neighborhoods-leaving much of the city unaffected, or even worse. After the grim years of the 2000s, even the modest improvement of recent years should be acknowledged, but this recovery has often had little impact on hypervacancy elsewhere in the city. Postal Service shows that since then the nation has recovered from the recession and foreclosure crisis, and the picture has changed significantly-in most cases, for the better. Although legacy cities have shared to some degree in the recovery, the picture in those cities is far more mixed than elsewhere, where the recovery has been far more dramatic. In many cities, the number of low-vacancy, strong-market tracts has increased, but the number of high-vacancy or hypervacant tracts has increased at the same time. Maps by Adrienne McDonnell In contrast to this uneven and equivocal picture in legacy cities since 2010, the scene in many Sunbelt and magnet cities has been one of dramatic and consistent improvement. Hypervacancy in these cities has all but disappeared, again with the exception of Atlanta. Despite clusters of persistent poverty, cities like Phoenix and Albuquerque have low vacancy today. Photo: Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation When a building is abandoned in a city with a strong real estate market, it rarely stays that way for long. Generally, it is acquired by someone who reuses it, either by rehabilitating it or by demolishing it, and builds a new structure on the site. Even where the property requires major work or is encumbered by liens, judgements, and unclear title, the value that buyers can realize by doing the work or clearing the title is usually worth their time and money. That pace may benefit some struggling homeowners, but it allows vacant properties to further deteriorate and blight their surroundings and often fails to provide a new owner with clear title following foreclosure. Under many systems, the municipality or county sells tax liens to private investors. Although this means that the taxes get paid, by farming out delinquent tax collection to private entities, local government loses its ability to control the future of those properties. In the words of legal scholar and Center for Community Progress Senior Advisor Frank Alexander, tax foreclosure laws "fail to provide either an efficient or effective enforcement mechanism" (Alexander 2011, 35). Under such systems, properties may be and often are vacated by their owners at any point after the initial foreclosure filing. With a handful of exceptions, however, the lender has no responsibility to maintain the property until it takes title, which may be years down the road. Only New York and New Jersey state laws clearly require lenders to maintain vacant properties during the foreclosure process, although individual cities in other states sometimes impose similar obligations. More perniciously, some lenders initiate foreclosures on properties in low-value areas and then choose not to pursue the foreclosure to completion, creating what are known as "zombie" properties. The owner may Public and Nonprofit Action to Revive the Market Fundamentally, economics drives the redevelopment or reuse of vacant properties, but public laws, policies, and actions significantly affect whether and how the market responds to redevelopment opportunities. Public policies and actions can hinder the market or, alternatively, help overcome economic obstacles and jump-start markets. This section discusses the different ways that public action can either impede or further the reuse of vacant property, followed by a closer look at two areas that have become particularly important in legacy cities with large numbers of vacancies: demolition and vacant lot greening. Most significant, perhaps, is how many jurisdictions in the United States handle local property tax collection. While not all vacant properties are also tax delinquent, a disproportionate share are.
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The proposal would have also introduced for the first time a capital charge amounting to at most. However, after strong pushback-the American Securitization Forum, an industry association, called that charge "arbitrary," and State Street Bank complained it was "too conservative"-regulators in announced a final rule setting the charge at up to. Regulatory changes-in this case, changes in the bankruptcy laws-also boosted growth in the repo market by transforming the types of repo collateral. In the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of, Congress expanded that provision to include many other assets, including mortgage loans, mortgage-backed securities, collateralized debt obligations, and certain derivatives. The result was a short-term repo market increasingly reliant on highly rated non-agency mortgage-backed securities; but beginning in mid-, when banks and investors became skittish about the mortgage market, they would prove to be an unstable funding source (see figure. Eight banks and securities firms provided most of the money New Century needed to make the, mortgages it would sell to Citigroup. Most of the funds came through repo agreements from a set of banks-including Morgan Stanley (million); Barclays Capital, a division of a U. The financing was provided when New Century originated these mortgages; so for about two months, New Century owed these banks approximately million secured by the mortgages. Another million in funding came from New Century itself, including million through its own commercial paper program. On August, Citigroup paid New Century million for the mortgages (and accrued interest), and New Century repaid the repo lenders after keeping a million (. The investors in the deal Investors for mortgage-backed securities came from all over the globe; what made securitization work were the customized tranches catering to every one of them. Fannie Mae bought the entire million triple-A-rated A tranche, which paid a better return than super-safe U. Securities lending was a large, but ultimately unstable, source of cash that flowed into this market. If losses rose above to (by design the threshold would increase over time), investors in the residual tranches would be wiped out, and the mezzanine investors would start to lose money. For example, Cheyne Finance Limited purchased million of the top mezzanine tranche. Typically, investors seeking high returns, such as hedge funds, would buy the equity tranches of mortgage-backed securities; they would be the first to lose if there were problems. Citigroup retained part of the residual or "first-loss" tranches, sharing the rest with Capmark Financial Group. Some of this profit flowed down to employees-particularly those generating mortgage volume. Part of the million premium received by New Century for the deal we analyzed went to pay the many employees who participated. We had our loans sold three months in advance, before they were even made at one point. Options Group, which compiles compensation figures for investment banks, examined the mortgage-backed securities sales and trading desks at commercial and investment banks from to. It found that associates had average annual base salaries of, to, from through, but received bonuses that could well exceed their salaries. On the next rung, vice presidents averaged base salaries and bonuses from, to. From to, revenues from rating such financial instruments increased more than fourfold. But the rating process involved many conflicts, which would come into focus during the crisis. In, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners adopted higher capital requirements on lower-rated bonds held by insurers. Ratings are also built into banking capital regulations under the Recourse Rule, which, since, has permitted banks to hold less capital for higher-rated securities. Credit ratings also determined whether investors could buy certain investments at all. Credit ratings affect even private transactions: contracts may contain triggers that require the posting of collateral or immediate repayment, should a security or entity be downgraded. Importantly for the mortgage market, the Secondary Mortgage Market Enhancement Act of permitted federal- and state-chartered financial institutions to invest in mortgage-related securities if the securities had high ratings from at least one rating agency. Loan-by-loan data, the highest level of detail, is generally not available to investors.
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In vivo folate kinetics during chronic supplementation of human subjects with deuterium-labeled folic acid. Effects of serum vitamin B12 and folate status on episodic memory performance in very old age: A populationbased study. Folic acid and neural tube defects: the current evidence and implications for prevention. Prevention of neural tube defects: Results of the Medical Research Council vitamin study. Mice deficient in cystathionine beta-synthase: Animal models for mild and severe homocyst(e)inemia. Plasma homocysteine, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is lowered by physiological doses of folic acid. Bioavailability for humans of deuterium-labeled monoglutamyl and polyglutamyl folates is affected by selected foods. The reduced unsubstituted pteroate moiety is required for folate toxicity of cultured cerebellar granule neurons. A genetic defect in 5, 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in neural tube defects. Hyperhomocysteinemia: A risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Folate deficiency in the alcoholic-its relationship to clinical and haematological abnormalities, liver disease and folate stores. Megaloblastic anemia in scurvy with response to 50 micrograms of folic acid daily. Can prenatal vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) supplementation replace prophylaxis at birth? Childhood leukaemia and intramuscular vitamin K: Findings from a case-control study. Assessment of vitamin K status in human subjects administered "minidose" warfarin. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherolquinone on vitamin K-dependent carboxylation in the rat. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration is reduced by vitamin K supplementation. Assessment of dietary phylloquinone intake and vitamin K status in postmenopausal women. Dihydro-vitamin K1: Primary food sources and estimated dietary intakes in the American diet. Dietary vitamin K1 and stability of oral anticoagulation: Proposal of a diet with constant vitamin K1 content. Relationships between dietary intakes and fasting plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in humans. Response of vitamin K status to different intakes and sources of phylloquinonerich foods: Comparison of younger and older adults. Vitamin K in colostrum and mature human milk over the lactation period-A cross-sectional study. Menadione-induced cell degeneration is related to lipid peroxidation in human cancer cells. Effect of vitamin E on prothrombin levels in warfarin-induced vitamin K deficiency. Joint position paper of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Committee on Child and Adolescent Health of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria. Carboxylation of osteocalcin in post-menopausal osteoporotic women following vitamin K and D supplementation. Ducy P, Desbois C, Boyce B, Pinero G, Story B, Dunstan C, Smith E, Bonadio J, Goldstein S, Gundberg C, Bradley A, Karsenty G. Comparison of phylloquinone bioavailability from food sources or a supplement in human subjects. Characterization of a Gla-containing protein from calcified human atherosclerotic plaques. Improving the vitamin K status of breastfeeding infants with maternal vitamin K supplements.
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For example, the cutoff should be more aggressive if the cost of an undiagnosed crisis is high, but less so if the cost of a false alarm is higher. If crises are rare, the threshold bar should also be raised to deflect too-frequent false alarms (see Pepe 2003). To put our model to a sterner test, we limited the forecast sample to the post-1983 period only (325 country-year observations) and compared in-sample and out-of-sample forecasts (the former based on full sample predictions, with look-ahead bias; the latter based on rolling regressions, using lagged data only). We think any predictive power is impressive at this stage given the general skepticism evinced by the "early warning" literature, and our out-of-sample results add some reassurance. We now ask some questions about the value added of our results and their robustness. The first claim we make is that the use of credit aggregates, rather than monetary aggregates, is of crucial importance. This would have broad implications, first for economic history, since monetary aggregates have been widely collected and may be easily put to use. Indeed, after the crisis of 200809 the argument has often been heard that greater attention to such aggregates, in contrast to a narrow focus on the Taylor rule indicators of output and inflation, might have averted the crisis. But when we look at the long run data systematically, monetary aggregates are not that useful as predictive tools in forecasting crises, in contrast to the correct measure, total credit. We find the success of the credit measure appealing, and not just because it vindicates the drudgery of our laborious data collection efforts: we think credit is a superior predictor, because it better captures important, time-varying features of bank balance sheets such as leverage and non-monetary liabilities. The basis for these claims is the collection of results reported in Tables 4 and 5. All through this table we continue to estimate the model over the entire sample, using the Logit model with country fixed effects. Having settled on this model, we now also report, for completeness, the marginal effects on the predicted probability evaluated at the means for the lags of credit. We then take several perturbations of the baseline that take the form of replacing the five lags of the credit variable with alternative measures of money and credit. The fit is still statistically significant, although slightly weaker judging from lower R2, pseudolikelihood, and significance levels on the lags. However, the basic message at this point is that broad money could potentially proxy for credit. Specification 8 replaces loans with narrow money and the model falls apart, which is not unexpected; given the instability in the money multiplier, the disconnect between base money and credit conditions is too great to expect this model to succeed. So far the main results might tempt us to conjecture, first, that various scalings of credit volume could have similar power to predict financial crises; and, second, that broad money could also proxy for credit adequately well. Column 12 is particularly interesting, since the significant and alternating signs of the first and second lag coefficients in the postwar period highlight the sign of the second derivative (not the first) in raising the risk of a crisis. In contrast, specifications 13 and 14 expose some unsatisfactory performance when broad money is used. The findings mesh well with our overall understanding of the dramatic changes in money and credit dynamics after the Great Depression. At least with respect to crises, the results of our analysis are clear: credit matters, not money. These findings have potentially important policy implications, especially for central banks that still embrace the oft forgotten idea of using quantitative indicators as a "pillar" of monetary policymaking. If this pillar is there as to support price stability goals, then indeed a monetary aggregate may be the right tool for the job; but if financial stability is a goal, then our results suggest that a better pillar might make use of credit aggregates instead and their superior power in predicting incipient crises. To underscore the value of our model based on the "credit view", and to guard against omitted variable bias, in Table 6 we subject our baseline specification to several perturbations that take the form of including additional control variables X as described above. Specification 16 adds 5 lags of the inflation rate, since inflation has been found to contribute to crises in some studies. Neither set of controls can raise the fit and predictive performance of the model slightly. Specifications 17 and 18 add 5 lags of the nominal short-term interest rate or its real counterpart, since some studies find that high interest rates. For example, according to arguments heard from time to time, if credit is funding "productive investments" then the chances that something can go wrong are reduced-as compared to credit booms that fuel consumption binges or feed speculative excess by households, firms, and/or banks.
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Parents and/or patients should be offered the option of age- and sex-appropriate psychologic counseling at the time of the initial diagnosis. We recommend that a transition team should also include, as needed, a gynecologist, a urologist, and a psychologist with specific expertise and interest in the treatment of such patients. Nonetheless, we recommend periodic physical examinations and, as indicated, hormonal measurements, sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging of both testes to assist in delineating the extent of such lesions. The patient must be monitored, throughout life, for activation of ectopic adrenal rest tissue. The procedure should only be carried out where long-term follow-up is secured, and in the form of ethically approved clinical studies. There remain important deficits in our knowledge about this disorder; and again, these have been highlighted. In the meantime, we should focus on early diagnosis, optimal medical and surgical treatment, and attention to compliance. Adv Intern Med 44:155173 Section on Endocrinology and Committee on Genetics of the American Academy of Pediatrics 2000 Technical report: congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Recently achieving charitable status, our Trust now represents around seventy people with this condition, whose ages range from 0-40 years. Having access to reliable, quality medicine continues to be a source of ongoing anxiety to many New Zealanders, despite the fact that we live in a part of the world where free, quality health care is available. A small domestic incident such as dropping a container of 1 hydrocortisone syrup (specially formulated by designated pharmacists), medication being in lost luggage whilst travelling, or being on holiday in a remote area when getting sick, highlight some of the issues that members have to contend with in managing their daily medication regime. Doctors are also unable provide proper treatment without prescribing these drugs and often face difficulties to find alternate medications. But the threat of death only hardened our resolve to abandon everything else and dedicate our lives to ensure that she will live. Our group is primarily composed of indigent families who can barely afford their daily needs and do not have the resources to handle the additional burden brought about by the condition. As the medicines we need for our children are not available locally, we were fortunate to receive help from outside sources in the form of medicines which we distribute to members for a nominal fee - which we also use for emergency purchases of additional supplies. No access to those drugs is almost tantamount to letting the babies suffer a slow death. President Gregory Kraff Vice President William Trzos Treasurer Vivian Altman Quintanilla Parliamentarian Stephanie R. Many families with little or no insurance have difficulty obtaining these medications that keep their children alive. Since children in Hanoi gained access to donated supplies of hydrocortisone and Florinef, mortality has fallen to zero. I am currently an Associate professor of the Department of Pediatrics in the University of the Philippines and Philippine General Hospital. However, it is sad to mention that we have no oral preparations of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone tablets in the Philippines. Clinically, we see good response to hydrocortisone and less complication like Cushing syndrome which may develop due to high dose or potency of steroid preparation. Inclusion of these two drugs, hydrocortisone tablets (4 or 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg) and fludrocortisone tablets (0. Such acts or methods of delivery are often very time-consuming and can be more costly. Moreover, many poor families do not have friends or relatives abroad to help them. Delay in management with proper medications may push the patients into adrenal crisis and unnecessary deaths. As physicians, we would always want to promote health and prevent morbidity as well as mortality. Syed Jamal Raza and I am presently working as Professor in Pediatrics at National Institute of Child Health which is based in Karachi, Pakistan. Its importance is undeniable as it has been a mainstay for treating this disorder for many decades.
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Being noninvasive and inexpensive, neuropsychological tests are frequently used to generate hypotheses about brain dysfunction. The most commonly used measure of attention is the continuous performance test, which requires subjects to sustain their attention to subtle sensory signals, to avoid being distracted by irrelevant stimuli, and to maintain alertness for the duration of the session. These include the following: perceptual-motor speed as assessed by the digit symbol/coding tests (54,55); working memory as assessed by digit span tests (53,56); verbal learning, especially semantic clustering (52,56); and response inhibition as assessed by the Stroop Color-Word Test (57,58). Although there are inconsistencies among studies, it is notable that the pattern of deficits that has emerged is similar to what has been found among adults with frontal lobe damage. This inference derives from the clinical and behavioral features that have been linked to regions of the prefrontal cortex (59). Notably, orbital frontal lesions predict social disinhibition and impulsivity, and dorsolateral lesions affect organizational abilities, planning, working memory, and attention. This term denotes a behavioral or cognitive dysfunction that looks ``frontal' but may be influenced by subcortical projections. For example, the cingulate cortex influences motivational aspects of attention and in response selection and inhibition. The brainstem reticular activating system regulates attentional tone and reticular thalamic nuclei filter interference. Working memory deficits implicate a distributed network including anterior hippocampus, ventral anterior and dorsolateral thalamus, anterior cingulate, parietal cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. A system mainly involving right prefrontal and parietal cortex is activated during sustained and directed attention across sensory modalities. The inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal sulcus are polymodal sensory convergence areas that provide a representation of extrapersonal space and play an important role in focusing on and selecting a target stimulus. Neuroimaging Studies Fortunately, hypotheses based on neuropsychological inference can be tested with neuroimaging paradigms. Among these studies, the most consistent findings implicated frontal cortex, usually limited to the right side, cerebellum, globus pallidus, caudate, and corpus callosum. Metabolic mapping studies suggest that their behavioral deficits are associated with lower 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the left striatum and the frontal and parietal cortex (61). The most consistent findings were hypoactivity of frontal cortex and subcortical structures, usually on the right side. First, the adolescent samples studied may have been more heterogeneous than the adult samples. Anterior cingulate cortex, lying on the medial surface of the frontal lobe, has strong connections to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, studies of more distant relatives are consistent with this idea as well (76). These investigators also examined comorbidity with learning disability, but these data produced equivocal results. These investigators reasoned that cases that remit before adolescence could have a smaller genetic component to their disorder than persistent cases. The authors compared these patients with 20 patients matched for age and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Twin and Adoption Studies Although family studies provide much useful information, they cannot disentangle genetic from environmental sources of transmission. There are two types of twins: identical or monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes in common. Thus, the occurrence of twinning creates a natural experiment in psychiatric genetics (91). If a disorder is strongly influenced by genetic factors, then the risk to cotwins of ill probands should be greatest when the twins are monozygotic. The risk to dizygotic twins should exceed the risk to controls but should not be greater than the risk to siblings. Twin data are used to estimate heritability, which measures the degree to which a disorder is influenced by genetic factors. Heritability ranges from zero to one, with higher levels indicating a greater degree of genetic determination. In a repeat analysis of these data, Stevenson reported that the heritability of motherreported activity levels was 75%, and the heritability of a psychometric measure of attention was 76% (94). Using the Child Behavioral Checklist as a dimensional measure, Hudziak and colleagues found a similar her- itability (60% to 68%) for mother-reported attention problems (97).
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Historically, shops attached to wind tunnels would prepare the laminated mahogany blocks. Today it is more effective to purchase commercially available laminated die materials when a woodlike m a t e d is the best choice. These materials are not only more cost effective at the outset but also more dimensionally stable than the results achieved without the capability to completely saturate the wood with sealer or glue. Where weight is a problem (as on flutter models) fiberglass can be used for external stores, slipper tanks, and the like. For example, fillets can be made of Cerrobend, which works easily and takes a good polish. In this case, depending on loads, steel or aluminum is ideal for lifting surfaces and flow-through jet nacelles. The fuselage can be built on a steel-aluminum spar with aluminum bulkheads that are threaded to take thick (0. Wings and tails can also be built of large flat plates (spar) of aluminum-steel to which epoxy or wood is bounded and contoured. For sharp trailing edges and for plastic contour material the leading edge should also possibly be metal. In any case, the model designer must design the model to fit the capabilities of the people and shop that will produce the model. The styrofoam is then covered with thin fiberglass or Mylar sheets (about 2 mils) to provide a smooth contour. The fiberglass and styrofoam are not considered to be load bearing, as in sandwich construction used for radio-controlled models. In general, these are oneshot models and do not lend themselves to major modifications, but their cost is relatively low. If models are to be made of wood that is not impregnated with a stabilizer, it is advisable to make each part oversize by 0. The last fraction of an inch is then worked down to female templates by files, scrappers, and sandpaper. The day should be so planned that time remains to spray at least one coat of clear lacquer after the piece is done to seal it and prevent warping due to changes in moisture content. This is not the type of process that is often a good choice in a commercial project today. But it can be a good learning process for student teams and may be the way for an amateur team to produce a quality model. Hinged surfaces present a problem for the model designer largely because the smallest hinge possible to construct is far too large in scale. In view of the hopelessness of accurate reproduction, the designer just does the best he or she can. This is a slow method with respect to model changes, and it slows model construction as well. A serious factor is that if, during the program, test results indicate that additional angles are required, the new brackets usually require shop work above the level of tunnel engineers and tie up the tunnel during fitting as well. This type of approach has become less acceptable as design cycle time has become more of an issue. A second method is to furnish the surfaces with hinges and to use an exterior sector with drilled holes for each angle setting. This is a good positive method that at least yields the same setting for repeat points, and it is only the work of a moment if additional settings become necessary. One must assume, of course, that such a sector in the "breeze" will not cause appreciable trouble. Brackets, often with fairings, are about the only way to attach leading-edge slats, slots, and trailing-edge slotted flaps, especially if they have a Fowler-type action. We have had too many of these slip and broken too many to be enthusiastic about this type except when it is designed by someone with much experience. The engineer using this type of hinge should check the setting at the end of each run.
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This negates, to some degree, the advantages of the high-speed capabilities of digital acquisition systems. They imply the pressure in a reference frame in which the mean molecular velocity is zero. Additional detail in the definition is required if one considers the variation in dynamic pressure for parcels of fluid small enough to be participating in "turbulent" fluctuations but large compared to molecular dimensions. The loads may be obtained by at least the following four methods, which are listed in the order of frequency of use: (1) measuring the actual forces and moments on the complete model or on parts of the model with one or more balances; (2) measuring the stress distribution over the model by means of orifices connected to pressure-measuring devices or other means such as pressure- or shear-sensitive coatings; (3) measuring the effect that the model has on the airstream by wake surveys and tunnel wall pressures; and (4) measuring the motion of the model under the action of the aerodynamic forces and computing the forces from equations of motion. We include these references because it is common for a wind tunnel engineer to need an acquaintance with the terminology of a potential user of a facility and whose background may vary. We will be using the conventions from aeronautics in most of our discussions because those have tended to be adopted or adapted to a great extent for other applications. Any reference frame is determined by its orientation relative to some other frame or a basic physical reference and the location of the origin. A reference frame is a set of three orthogonal axes, by convention always labeled in a right-hand sequence. The wind axes have x, pointing into the wind, z, pointing down, and y, pointing to the right looking into the wind. If the test section is not horizontal, then an appropriate local convention must be adopted. Note that drag is in the negative x, direction and lift is in the negative z, direction while the side force is in the positive y, direction. We note that a perfectly aligned wind tunnel would have the wind axes exactly parallel to the wind tunnel axis. In reality, there are angularities, and these lead to the wind axes for any given model that may be angularly offset from the tunnel axes. The exact alignment with any particular model must be specified as part of test planning. The force components on body axes are sometimes referred to as axial force, side force, and normal force for the xb, ybrzb components, respectively, or sometimes as body drag, body lift, and body side force. This multiple terminology can lead to confusion and requires attention to avoid errors in communication. Moments and Reference Frame Origins the moment components on the x, y, z axes are referred to as rolling moment, pitching moment, and yawing moment, respectively. Note that the origins of the reference frames must be carefully specified in every case since the moments are directly and critically dependent on this choice and there is no universal standard. Model Attitude the standard way to specify model attitude is to use an Euler angle sequence going from wind axes to body axes of "yaw," about the z, axis, "pitch," 0, about an intermediate y axis, and "roll," 4, about the xb axis. However, it is the aerodynamic angles, angle of attack cx and sideslip p, that are the preferred independent variables for writing aerodynamic functions. The rotation sequence to go from wind axes to body axes for the aerodynamic angles is to rotate P in a negative sense about the z, axis, then rotate a in a positive sense about the yb axis. In the wind tunnel case for which the wind axes are aligned with what is taken as an E r h fixed frame in vehicle dynamics, yaw at is the negative of sideslip P provided roll is zero. There are several opportunities to get signs mixed up so we will give a formal procedure. The relationship between the components on the two frames in terms of the Euler angles as indicated in the sketch is as given by Equation (7. The rule is simple, but again the non-right-hand rule conventions as treated above sometimes lead to errors. The common use of this expression is to transfer moments from a "balance center" to a reference of choice for a particular model. A wind tunnel balance is expected to separate these force and moment components and accurately resolve what is almost always small differences in large forces. A complicating factor is that the various force and moment components vary widely in value at any given air speed and each varies greatly over the speed range from minimum to maximum. Balance design and use are problems that should not be deprecated; in fact, it might truthfully be said that balance design is among the most trying problems in the field. Concept of a Six-Component Balance In an attempt to picture the situation most clearly, a conceptual but impractical wire balance based on spring scales is shown in Figure 7. The model, supposed to be too heavy to be raised by the aerodynamic lift, is held by six wires.
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Thus we propose the formula N (F L G) = N - N (F) - N (L) - N (G) +N (F L) + N (L G) + N (F G)? A student taking no language is counted once (by the term N)-such students are exactly the ones we want to count. The challenge is to make sure that all other students are counted a net of 0 times. The students taking one language are counted once by N and subtracted once by the term -[N (F) + N (L) + N (G)], for a net count of 0. The students taking two languages are counted once by N, subtracted twice by -[N (F) + N (L) + N (G)] (since they are in exactly two of the three sets), and then added once by the term +[N (F L) + N (L G) + N (F G)] (since they are in exactly one of the three pairwise intersections), for a net count of 0. They are counted once by N, then subtracted three times by the sum of the three sets (since they are in all three sets), then added three times by the pairwise intersections (since they are in all three of these subsets). Then we must correct formula (3) by subtracting N (F L G) to make the net count of students with all three languages 0: N (F L G) = N - [N (F) + N (L) + N (G)] + [N (F L) + N (L G) + N (F G)] - N (F L G) (4) For general sets A1, A2, A3, we rewrite (4) as N (A1 A2 A3) = N - i N (Ai) + ij N (Ai A j) - N (A1 A2 A3) (5) where the sums are understood to run over all possible i and all i,j pairs, respectively. Example 3: Students Taking None of Three Languages If a school has 100 students with 40 taking French, 40 taking Latin, and 40 taking German, 20 students are taking any given pair of languages, and 10 students are taking all three languages, then how many students are taking no language? Here N = 100, N (F) = N (L) = N (G) = 40, N (F L) = N (L G) = N (F G) = 20, and N (F L G) = 10. Then by (4), the number of students taking no language is N (F L G) = 100 - (40 + 40 + 40) + (20 + 20 + 20) - 10 = 30. Example 4: Relatively Prime Numbers How many positive integers 70 are relatively prime to 70? Then we want to count the number of integers 70 that do not have 2 or 5 or 7 as divisors. Let A1 be the set of integers in U that are evenly divisible by 2, or equivalently, integers in U that are multiples of 2; A2 be integers evenly divisible by 5; and A3 be integers evenly divisible by 7. Then the number of positive integers 70 that are relatively prime to 70 equals N (A1 A2 A3). We find N = 70 N (A1) = 70/2 = 35 N (A2) = 70/5 = 14 N (A3) = 70/7 = 10 the integers evenly divisible by both 2 and 5 are simply the integers evenly divisible by 10. By similar reasoning, N (A2 A3) = 70/ (5 Ч 7) = 2, N(A1 A3) = 70/(2 Ч 7) = 5, and N(A1 A2 A3) = 70/(2 Ч 5 Ч 7) = 1. So we must formulate the first part of this problem in terms of outcomes for which none of a set of properties holds. The solution is to define Ai to be the number of n-digit ternary sequences with no is, for i = 0, 1, 2. The number of n-digit ternary sequences with no 0s is simply the number of n-digit sequences of 1s and 2s. Then by (5), N (A0 A1 A2) = 3n - (2n + 2n + 2n) + (1 + 1 + 1) - 0 = 3n - 3 Ч 2n + 3 Now we turn to the second part of this problem involving n-digit ternary sequences with at least one void. The phrase "at least" is used in a very different way here than it was used in the first part. At least one void means a void of the digit 0 or 324 Chapter 8 InclusionExclusion a void of the digit 1 or a void of digit 2. Thus, the sequences with at least one void are exactly the complement of the sequences with no voids that were counted in the first part. So the answer to the second part is N(A1 A2 A3) = N - N (A1 A2 A3) = 3n - (3n - 3 Ч 2n + 3) = 3 Ч 2n - 3 the reader must be constantly alert for union problems when seeing the phrase "at least" in inclusionexclusion problems. In one case (the more common case), we are counting outcomes with no voids of any type-an intersection problem-which means at least one outcome of the first type and at least one outcome of the second type and etc. In the other case, we are counting outcomes with at least one of a set of properties-a union problem-which means an outcome with the first property or an outcome with the second property or etc. Observe that whereas polynomial algebra was used in Chapter 6 to model counting problems and recurrence relations were used in Chapter 7, now we are using a settheoretic model. This approach does not eliminate combinatorial enumeration as the other models did. We still must solve the subproblems of finding N (Ai), N (Ai A j), and so forth, but these are much easier problems. The following example shows how to determine the sizes of all possible subsets in a Venn diagram in such circumstances. Example 6: Nonstandard Constraints Suppose there are 100 students in a school and there are 40 students taking each language, French, Latin, and German.
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Ask your customer if there are any policies regarding distributed authority for network design and implementation. For example, are there departments that control their own internetworking purchases? Find out if departments and end users are involved in choosing their own applications. A lot of organizations need to implement policies in response to legal, regulatory, or contractual requirements. In the rush to get to technical requirements, network designers sometimes ignore nontechnical issues, which is a mistake. The budget should include allocations for equipment purchases, software licenses, maintenance and support agreements, testing, training, and staffing. The budget might also include consulting fees (including your fees) and outsourcing expenses. Throughout the project, work with your customer to identify requirements for new personnel, such as additional network managers. Point out the need for personnel training, which will affect the budget for the project. Chapter 1: Analyzing Business Goals and Constraints 21 In general, it is a good idea to analyze the abilities of the networking staff. Should you recommend any training or outsourcing for network operations and management? The technologies and protocols that you recommend will depend on the abilities of internal staff. Analyzing in-house expertise is especially important and challenging for companies that merge their voice and data networks. Consider the need to train the traditional voice experts on data technologies and the data experts on voice technologies. Also, implementing voice and video often requires advanced QoS knowledge that may necessitate training. Regardless of who controls the budget, one common network design goal is to contain costs. Reduced budgets or limited resources often force network designers to select the most affordable solution instead of the best solution. It is useful to know the areas in which the network design can be changed with the least effect on performance to meet budget requirements. Chapter 2 discusses typical tradeoffs that must be made to meet the goal of affordability while achieving good performance and reliability. Make a business case to the customer that explains how quickly the new network will pay for itself, due to reduced operational costs, improved employee productivity, or the enabling of higher revenue potential and market expansion. Project Scheduling An additional business-oriented topic that you should review with your customer is the timeframe for the network design project. Consider the state of building wiring, which might be poor quality and not support new applications. If the wiring needs to be replaced, this will have a major impact on the schedule. Also, be sure to include circuit disconnect or circuit capacity changes in the 22 Top-Down Network Design project schedule. Plan to document when the circuit changes and other major changes take place so that if problems occur, you can analyze what has changed to help you troubleshoot. Many tools exist for developing a schedule that includes milestones, resource assignments, critical-path analysis, and so on. Take a look at these aspects of the schedule and voice your view on whether the schedule is practical, considering what you have learned about the scope of the project. An aggressive implementation schedule might require a reduction in the scope of the project or a reduction in the quality of the planning and testing that will be conducted. During the technical-analysis stage and the logical- and physical-design phases of the project, be sure to keep the schedule in mind. As you iteratively develop a concrete understanding of the technical scope of the network design project, point out any concerns you have about the schedule. This book teaches an ideal network design methodology that you should try to follow, but if real-world constraints, such as uncooperative network design customers, budget cuts, and time constraints, hamper your ability to follow the methodology precisely, just follow it as much as you can. In general, the methodology still works even if some data is missing after you do your analysis.