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Any dose not administered at the recommended age should be administered at a subsequent visit, when indicated and feasible. Dosesafterthebirthdose: · the second dose should be administered at age 1 to 2 months. Those who received at least 1 dose of the 201011 vaccine require 1 dose for the 201112 season. This schedule is approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Department of Health and Human Services · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Figure 1 Recommended Immunization Schedule for persons aged 7 through 18 years. Refer to the catch-up schedule if additional doses oftetanusanddiphtheriatoxoidcontainingvaccineareneeded. Always use this table in conjunction with the accompanying childhood and adolescent immunization schedules (Figures 1 and 2) and their respective footnotes. Persons aged 4 months through 6 years Vaccine Hepatitis B Rotavirus1 Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis2 Minimum Age for Dose 1 Birth 6 weeks 6 weeks Minimum Interval Between Doses Dose 1 to dose 2 4 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks 4 weeks Dose 2 to dose 3 and at least 16 weeks after first dose; minimum age for the final dose is 24 weeks Dose 3 to dose 4 Dose 4 to dose 5 8 weeks 4 weeks1 4 weeks if current age is younger than 12 months if current age is 12 months or older and first dose administered at younger than age 12 months and second dose administered at younger than 15 months if previous dose administered at age 15 months or older 6 months 8 weeks (as final dose) 6 months2 4 weeks3 Haemophilus influenzae type b3 if first dose administered at younger than age 12 months 6 weeks if first dose administered at age 1214 months if first dose administered at age 15 months or older 8 weeks (as final dose) 8 weeks (as final dose) 3 No further doses needed No further doses needed 4 weeks this dose only necessary for children aged 12 months through 59 months who received 3 doses before age 12 months if first dose administered at younger than age 12 months 4 weeks Pneumococcal 4 6 weeks if first dose administered at age 12 months or older or current age 24 through 59 months for healthy children if first dose administered at age 24 months or older 8 weeks (as final dose for healthy children) No further doses needed 8 weeks (as final dose for healthy children) if current age is 12 months or older for healthy children if previous dose administered at age 24 months or older if current age is younger than 12 months No further doses needed this dose only necessary for children aged 12 months through 59 months who received 3 doses before age 12 months or for children at high risk who received 3 doses at any age minimum age 4 years for final dose 8 weeks (as final dose) Inactivated poliovirus5 Meningococcal 6 6 weeks 9 months 12 months 12 months 12 months 4 weeks 8 weeks 6 4 weeks 6 months5 Measles, mumps, rubella7 Varicella8 Hepatitis A 4 weeks 3 months 6 months Persons aged 7 through 18 years Tetanus, diphtheria/ tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis9 Human papillomavirus10 Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Inactivated poliovirus5 Meningococcal6 Measles, mumps, rubella7 Varicella 8 7 years 9 4 weeks if first dose administered at younger than age 12 months if first dose administered at 12 months or older 4 weeks 6 months if first dose administered at younger than age 12 months 6 months 9 years 12 months Birth 6 weeks 9 months 12 months 12 months 6 months 4 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks6 4 weeks if person is younger than age 13 years if person is aged 13 years or older Routine dosing intervals are recommended10 (and at least 16 weeks after first dose) 8 weeks 4 weeks5 6 months5 3 months 4 weeks 1. This dose can count as the adolescent Tdap dose, or the child can later receive a Tdap booster dose at age 1112 years. Whenpatientshavereceivedtherecommendedimmunizationsforsomeof the c omponentsinacombinationvaccine,administeringtheextraantigen(s)inthecombinationvaccineispermissibleif theyarenotcontraindicatedanddoingsowillreducethe numberof injectionsrequired. Immunizations Received Outside the United States Peopleimmunizedinothercountries,includinginternationallyadoptedchildren, r efugees,andexchangestudents,shouldbeimmunizedaccordingtorecommended s chedules(includingminimalagesandintervals)intheUnitedStatesforhealthyinfants, children,andadolescents(seeFig1. Themedicalrecordmaintained bytheprimaryhealthcareprofessionalandinsomestatesbytheImmunization InformationSystems(seeRecordKeepingandImmunizationInformationSystems,p 39)should ocumentallvaccinesreceived,includingvaccinesreceivedinanotherhealth d caresetting. Theformatof therecordshouldfacilitateidentificationandrecallof patientsinneedof immunizationandif maintainedinahardcopymedicalchartrecord shouldbekeptasasinglesummarysheetof allimmunizationsadministered. Becausechancetemporalassociationof anadverse eventtothetimingof administrationof aspecificvaccinecanoccur,atruecausalassociationusuallyrequiresthattheeventoccuratasignificantlyhigherrateinvaccinerecipients thaninunimmunizedgroupsof similarageandresidenceorthattheeventmayhave beenreportedearlierinprelicensureorpostlicensureepidemiologicstudies. Clusteringin timeof unusualadverseeventsfollowingimmunizationsortherecurrenceof theadverse eventwithsubsequentdoseof thesamevaccine(eg,rarebutwell-documentedinstances of recurrentGuillain-Barrйsyndromeafteradministrationof tetanustoxoid-containing vaccines)alsosuggestacausalrelationship. Category2: videncefavorsacceptanceof avaccine-adverseeventrelationshipevidenceis E (strongandgenerallysuggestivebutnotfirmenoughtobedescribedasconvincing): · Influenzavaccineandoculorespiratorysyndrome. Reporting of Adverse Events Beforeadministeringadoseof anyvaccine,healthcareprofessionalsshouldaskparents andpatientsif theyhaveexperiencedadverseeventsfollowingimmunizationwithpreviousdoses. Vaccine purchased with: Private funds Military funds Other/unknown Public funds 17. Previous doses Date given Manufacturer Lot number Route/Site Military clinic/hospital Other/unknown 19. Pre-existing physician-diagnosed allergies, birth defects, medical conditions (specify) To health department To manufacturer Only for children 5 and under 22. Reports for reactions to other vaccines are voluntary except when required as a condition of immunization grant awards. Common Misconceptions About Immunizationsa Claims Naturalmethodsof enhancingimmunityarebetterthan v accinations. Passive immunizationisindicatedinthefollowinggeneralcircumstancesforpreventionorameliorationof infectiousdiseases: · Whenpeoplearedeficientinsynthesisof antibodyasaresultof congenitaloracquired B-lymphocytedefects,aloneorincombinationwithotherimmunodeficiencies. Customarypracticeisto a dminstertwicethisdoseinitiallyandtoadjusttheintervalbetweenadministrationof i thedoses(24weeks)onthebasisof troughIgGconcentrationsandclinicalresponse (absenceof ordecreaseininfections). Antibodies of Animal Origin (Animal Antisera) Productsof animaloriginusedforneutralizationof toxinsorprophylaxisof infectious diseasesarederivedfromserumof horsesorsheepimmunizedwiththeagent/toxoidof interest. Mixing150mgof dopaminewith250mL of salinesolutionor5%dextroseinwaterwillproduceasolutionthat, if infusedattherateof 1mL/kg/h,willdeliver10g/kg/min. Becausepreterminfantsyoungerthan6monthsof ageand infantsof anyagewithchroniccomplicationsof pretermbirthareextremelyvulnerable toinfluenzavirusinfection,householdcontacts,childcareproviders,andhospitalnurserypersonnelcaringforpreterminfantsshouldreceiveinfluenzavaccineannually(see Influenza,p439). Appropriatelyselectedpreterminfantsbornatlessthan32weeksof gestationalage, infantswithchroniclungdiseaseandprematurity,andinfantswithspecifiedcardiovascularconditionsupto2yearsof agemaybenefitfrommonthlyimmunoprophylaxiswith palivizumab(respiratorysyncytialvirusmono lonalantibody)duringrespiratorysyncytial c virusseason(seeRespiratorySyncytialVirus,p609). Preterminfantscanreceiverotavirusvaccineunderthefollowingcircumstances: theinfantisatleast6weeksandlessthan15weeks,0daysof chronologicage,theinfant ismedicallystable,andthefirstdoseisgivenatthetimeof hospitaldischargeorafter h ospitaldischarge. Primarydisordersof the immunesystemgenerallyareinherited,usuallyassingle-genedisorders;mayinvolveany partof theimmunedefenses,includingB-lymphocyte(humoral)immunity,T-lymphocyte (cell)-mediatedimmunity,complementandphagocyticfunction,andabnormalitiesof innateimmunity;andsharethecommonfeatureof susceptibilitytoinfection. If thereisanavailabletestforaknown antibodycorrelateof protection,specificpostimmunizationserumantibodytiterscan bedetermined4to6weeksafterimmunizationtoassessimmuneresponseandguide f urtherimmunizationandmanagementof futureexposures. Applicationof low-potencytopicalcorticosteroidstofocalareasontheskin;administrationbyaerosolizationintherespiratorytract;applicationonconjunctiva;or intraarticular,bursal,ortendoninjectionsof corticosteroidsusuallydonotresultin immunosuppressionthatwouldcontraindicateadministrationof attenuatedlive-virus vaccines.
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Treatment Monotherapy: Start by giving 300 micrograms/kg once a day by mouth for 2 weeks and then twice a day for a further 2 weeks. Knowledge of the blood level does not help to optimise management, but may reveal failure to take medicine as prescribed. Although they are only semi-soluble, small doses can be given with reasonable accuracy by adding a tablet to 10 ml of tap water; one ml of liquid will then contain ~500 micrograms of lamotrigine as long as the particulate Continued on p. The same dose can also be given into the rectum if oral treatment is not possible. A stable suspension with a 4-week shelf life can be prepared, but it has a very unpleasant taste. References (See also the relevant Cochrane reviews) Cummings C, Stewart M, Stevenson M, et al. Neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to lamotrigine, sodium valproate and carbamazepine. Lamotrigine in pregnancy: clearance, therapeutic drug monitoring and seizure frequency. It is a pyrrolidone derivative and is chemically unrelated to other currently available anticonvulsants. Unlike other anticonvulsants, it does not induce cell death in the developing brain which might offer a theoretical benefit over older established anticonvulsants. Levetiracetam has a broad antiepileptic activity across different seizure types and syndromes and is licensed in many countries as add-on treatment for partial-onset seizures in children >4 years. In children and adults, the most common side effects are somnolence and behavioural side effects. Case studies and pharmacokinetic studies in newborn babies have suggested that levetiracetam is also safe in this age group, but randomised controlled trials have yet to be published. Pharmacology Levetiracetam has linear pharmacokinetics, is mainly excreted unchanged by the kidneys and is metabolised via enzymatic hydrolysis by a plasma esterase. A number of case series suggest that levetiracetam may be safe in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Pharmacokinetic studies in newborns have shown not only longer half-life than in adults and older children but one that changes within the first few days; on day 1, the half-life is ~1618 hours; however, this decreases during the first week of life to 89 hours. Maternal use Levetiracetam appears to be a much safer alternative during pregnancy than sodium valproate with a reported low risk of major congenital malformations following first trimester use. Clearance of levetiracetam increases significantly during pregnancy, and serum concentrations may fall as low as 40% of baseline. Levetiracetam is excreted into breast milk in considerable amounts, and the mean milk/maternal serum concentration ratio is 1. Without a loading dose: start with 10 mg/kg twice daily, increasing by 10 mg/kg/day over 3 days to 30 mg/kg twice daily. With loading dose: 40 mg/kg loading dose followed by 10 mg/kg once daily (note: the authors of this study suggested from their pharmacokinetic studies that a maintenance dose of 10 mg/kg eight hourly results in better maintenance of serum levels towards the end of the first week of life). Oral/enteral: 10 mg/kg/day in one to two divided doses, increase daily by 10 mg/kg over 3 days to 30 mg/kg/day (further increases in doses have been reported up to 60 mg/kg/day). One report in adults suggests phenytoin plasma levels may be increased by up to 52%, but this has not been seen in other studies or in children. The manufacturer recommends dilution to 100 ml to give a 5 mg/ml solution for administration; however, a 1:1 dilution of the drug from Continued on p. Bioavailability is almost 100% after oral administration; there is no need to alter the dose or the dosing frequency when switching between parenteral and enteral routes. A seven-day study of the pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam in neonates: marked changes in pharmacokinetics occur during the first week of life. Rapid infusion of a loading dose of intravenous levetiracetam with minimal dilution: a safety study. Both synthetic- and animal (usually porcine)-derived products are available, although the former are hard to obtain, have variable thyroxine content and are not licensed. Anti-thyroid drugs and maternal thyroid receptor antibodies can cross the placenta causing fetal hypo- and hyperthyroidism.
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Other crops and domesticated animals were developed by cultures in Asia, Africa, and the Americas in the same period. Ancient writings demonstrate that early humans were also aware of their own heredity. Hindu sacred writings dating to 2000 years ago attribute many traits to the father and suggest that differences between siblings are produced by the mother. The Talmud, the Jewish book of religious laws based on oral traditions dating back thousands of years, presents an uncannily accurate understanding of the inheritance of hemophilia. It directs that, if a woman bears two sons who die of bleeding after circumcision, any additional sons that she bears should not be circumcised; nor should the sons of her sisters be circumcised. This advice accurately corresponds to the X-linked pattern of inheritance of hemophilia (discussed further in Chapter 6). Greek philosophers developed the concept of pangenesis, in which specific particles, later called gemmules, carry information from various parts of the body to the reproductive organs, from which they are passed to the embryo at the moment of conception (Figure 1. Although incorrect, the concept of pangenesis was highly influential and persisted until the late 1800s. The notion of the inheritance of acquired characteristics also is no longer accepted, but it remained popular through the twentieth century. Although the ancient Romans contributed little to an understanding of human heredity, they successfully developed a number of techniques for animal and plant breeding; the techniques were based on trial and error rather than any general concept of heredity. Little new information was added to the understanding of genetics in the next 1000 years. Dutch eyeglass makers began to put together simple microscopes in the late 1500s, enabling Robert Hooke (16351703) to discover cells in 1665. Microscopes provided naturalists with new and exciting vistas on life, and perhaps excessive enthusiasm for this new world of the very small gave rise to the idea of preformationism. According to preformationism, inside the egg or sperm there exists a fully formed miniature adult, a homunculus, which simply enlarges in the course of development (Figure 1. Preformationism meant that all traits were inherited from (a) Pangenesis concept 1 According to the pangenesis concept, genetic information from different parts of the body. Although many observations suggested that offspring possess a mixture of traits from both parents, preformationism remained a popular concept throughout much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Another early notion of heredity was blending inheritance, which proposed that offspring are a blend, or mixture, of parental traits. This idea suggested that the genetic material itself blends, much as blue and yellow pigments blend to make green paint. Once blended, genetic differences could not be separated out in future generations, just as green paint cannot be separated out into blue and yellow pigments. Some traits do appear to exhibit blending inheritance; however, we realize today that individual genes do not blend. According to this theory, all life is composed of cells, cells arise only from preexisting cells, and the cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms. Biologists interested in heredity began to examine cells to see what took place in the course of cell reproduction. Walther Flemming (18431905) observed the division of chromosomes in 1879 and published a superb description of mitosis. By 1885, it was generally recognized that the nucleus contained the hereditary information. Charles Darwin (18091882), one of the most influential biologists of the nineteenth century, put forth the theory of evolution through natural selection and published his ideas in On the Origin of Species in 1859. Darwin recognized that heredity was fundamental to evolution, and he conducted extensive genetic crosses with pigeons and other organisms. However, he never understood the nature of inheritance, and this lack of understanding was a major omission in his theory of evolution. In the last half of the nineteenth century, cytologists demonstrated that the nucleus had a role in fertilization. Near the close of the nineteenth century, August Weismann (18341914) finally laid to rest the notion of the inheritance of acquired characteristics. He cut off the tails of mice for 22 consecutive generations and showed that the tail length in descendants remained stubbornly long. Weismann proposed the germ-plasm theory, which holds that the cells in the reproductive organs carry a complete set of genetic information that is passed to the egg and sperm (see Figure 1. The Rise of the Science of Genetics In 1676, Nehemiah Grew (16411712) reported that plants reproduce sexually by using pollen from the male sex cells.
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Management the key to success in Dictyophora cultivation involves water management. A relatively moist place is required in which 352 Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact the water content of the substrate and soil should be between 60 and 70%. The mycelium can tolerate a water content of the substrate greater than 75% for only a short period of time, and, if the water content remains that high for a longer period, the mycelium will die from lack of oxygen. If the water content of the substrate is less than 50%, growth of the mycelium will be retarded, and when less than 30%, the mycelium will dry and die. There are certain precautions that must be taken to prevent damage to the mushrooms. If termites eat the logs, they can destroy whole logs in mushroom farms, and management to prevent this is essential. It is necessary to remove and examine the logs after they have been covered for a couple of months and to apply an antitermite substance if there is an indication of infection. Also, animals stepping on the casing soil will pack it down and make it too hard, resulting in breaks in the mycelium. Thus, management practices to keep animals off the mushroom plot must be employed. If examination of the plot shows that the casing soil is thin in places, supplemental casing should be added to those places. Fruiting A year after the inoculated logs or other substrate have been covered, the mycelium will have grown out from the inoculum and penetrated the substrate. The mycelium will also have grown into the casing layer and extended to the surface. As previously mentioned, the eggs and rhizomorphs attached to them undergo synchronous expansion. With good rain from the middle of June to the middle of July, the egg will expand very rapidly, and then overnight the mature egg can develop into a fully expanded fruiting body. Fruiting occurs in a much shorter time if the substrate material consists of pieces of wood or bamboo than if it is a wood log. With pieces of wood or bamboo, a period of only 2 to 3 months is required for vegetative growth, and the formation of fruiting bodies then occurs. Development is even quicker when the substrate material consists of bamboo leaves. Although fruiting is slow to start with the wood log method, harvests may be obtained for 3 to 4 years; whereas harvests may be taken for only 1 to 2 years with a substrate of chips and pieces, although the fruiting does take place earlier. Harvests were obtained for 3 years: (1) the first year the average harvest for 40 kg of logs was 30 g (dry weight) with a maximum of 120 g; (2) the second year the average was 20 g with a maximum of 80 g; (3) the third year was much lower than the second. With this substrate, harvesting can start 2 months after spawning, and within that same year 50 g of dry mushrooms can be harvested. A that a high moisture condition is essential for the successful cultivation of Dictyophora. This is obviously easier to control in indoor cultivation than in forest cultivation, as are other important factors, such as light, temperature, and protection against pests. The Mushroom House the temperature of the mushroom house should not exceed 30C for growth of Dictyophora, a mesophilic fungus. Therefore, the orientation of the house should be in an east-west direction to Dictyophora - Formerly for the Few 353 avoid direct sunlight shining on the house, as in summer months this would raise the temperature above 30C. The structure of the house should include false ceilings as an aid to insulation, and the house also should have low windows to facilitate ventilation. Within the house, the bedding for support of the substrate materials for mushroom growth should be 1 m wide, 2 m high, and there should be three or four layers with 60 cm between each layer. Containers for Cultivation the container selected for cultivation of Dictyophora should be resistant to rotting. A layer of stones, about the size of eggs, should be placed at the bottom of these containers to facilitate drainage, and the bottom of the container should have some holes for the same purpose. A sheet of plastic should be placed in the container so that it covers the bottom and extends up the sides.
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However, milrinone, being 8085% excreted unchanged in urine, is unlikely to be significantly affected by hypothermia per se. Abstracts and some of the articles are available free of charge, otherwise a subscription is required. It has been responsible for the development of neonatal guidelines and standards as well as supporting neonatal and perinatal research. Relatively few perinatal issues are covered, but the number covered is increasing steadily. The text is also currently available in Italian, German, Hungarian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. It is semicontinuously updated and published afresh in book form every 6 months, but the Cochrane Library the Cochrane Collaboration is an international not-for-profit organisation whose aim is to provide up-to-date information about the effects of health Neonatal Formulary 7: Drug Use in Pregnancy and the First Year of Life, Seventh Edition. The library contains the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. It is also an essential requirement if the results are to be published in many journals. Information about trials is now becoming available through a number of sites listed below. They can also offer help to those who want to contact other families facing a similar challenge. The site provides data on maternal and infant levels of drugs, possible effects on breastfed infants and on lactation, and alternate drugs to consider. It also provides links to a number of similar websites that provide information about drugs, vaccines and diagnostic agents that might be used. The Trust offers freely available evidencebased, objective information that is free from influence and sponsorship by food manufacturers or retailers. It also offers advice on travel vaccinations and travel Useful websites 51 issues. A further useful website is supported by Great Ormond Street Hospital in London · h t t p: w w w. The website provides extensive regularly updated information on all issues relating to childbirth. It also supports a very active inquiry service and publishes a quarterly digest containing original articles and overviews of recent medical, midwifery and neonatal research taken from over 500 international journals. Subscribers also, for a fee, enjoy online access to regularly updated standard reading lists, and to over 100,000 articles on pregnancy, midwifery and childbirth issues. The site provides links to areas designed for mothers and professionals as well as a specific site for foetal alcohol syndrome research. This merged with the Health Development Agency in 2005 and began developing public health guidance. The website has separate sections on patient and public involvement, medicines and prescribing and guidance development. The British Association of Perinatal Medicine has also issued a number of important guidelines. An outline summary of its current advice on individual Teratogens Two large collaborative groups collate information and disseminate advice on drugs that may be teratogenic. The site does not provide direct access to the main monographs themselves, but all monographs added or updated after the latest print edition went to press can be found and downloaded from this site. It also provides access to archived monographs of those drugs that are no longer included in the printed version of the most recent edition (although they do still receive recognition in the index). This website provides links to a large number of relevant documents and resources, including a model formulary for both children and adults (now also published in book form). The staff should never prescribe or administer any drug without first familiarising themselves with the way it works, the way it is handled by the body and the problems that can arise as a result of its use. While many texts have long offered advice on the best dose to use in infancy often in tabular form very few provide much information on the idiosyncrasies associated with neonatal use. Such dosage tables can be a useful aide-mйmoire, but they should never be relied upon, on their own, to help the staff decide what to use when, what works best or what potential adverse effects are commonly encountered during use in infancy. In addition, lists summarising common side effects and potential drug interactions are seldom of much help in identifying which problems are common or likely to be of clinical importance in the neonate, and access to this more detailed information is as important for the staff responsible for drug administration as it is for those prescribing treatment in the first place. Never use anything except the most recent edition of this or any other reference text. Indeed, copies of earlier editions should not be left where they might get used in error.
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On average, the spring mushroom has three to five flushes, with an interval of 9 to 13 days for each flush. Reasons for Abnormal Mushrooms Although production of shiang-gu in Fujian Province by the bag method was very good in 1985 and 1986, there were individual farmers who were not successful. Although there are several reasons for failure, the main reasons were lack of good fruiting and the production of abnormal fruiting bodies that were of low commercial value. This subject has been considered by Huang,9 who has observed that sometimes even though the mycelium grows well in the bag, there is not good fruiting, and sometimes the fruiting does not occur at a suitable time. He suggests that the main causes for abnormal mushrooms are (1) the use of an unsuitable variety as spawn and (2) the removal of the plastic bag before the mycelium has reached physiological maturity. Three types of spawn are used in China: 266 Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact · · · Low temperature: A temperature less than 10C is required for fruiting. Similarly, if a spawn selected to give good results with wood log cultivation is used for sawdust cultivation in plastic bags, the results may not be good. That is, it is essential to select a spawn variety that is suitable for the local conditions and the method of cultivation to be used. Even with a good spawn and careful management after the bag has been removed, there will not be good fruiting if the bag is removed too early. Even if the log is soaked in water, the quantity of mushrooms will be small and usually of an abnormal type. It stands to reason that, if the mycelium has not grown well and matured, there will be a shortage of nutrients for the formation of fruiting bodies. Thus, if a fruiting body is formed, there may only be enough nutrients to form the stalk but insufficient nutrients to form the pileus. This would explain the frequent observation of abnormal mushrooms, which have a stalk but not a pileus, or just a small pileus. The mycelium grows well at a temperature of 24 to 25C, and it breaks down the sawdust substrate well at 27 to 30C. Therefore, if incubation has been at 25C or lower, the mycelium may grow well throughout the bag, but there may be very limited accumulation of nutrients by degradation of the substrate. Under these circumstances, in which mycelial growth has taken place at a suitable range of temperatures, it is important to place the synthetic log at the temperature of the upper limit (27 to 30C) for a period of time so that nutrients necessary for fruiting can be accumulated from substrate breakdown. It is to be noted that in these case studies of cultivation practices, many explanations are given without supporting experimental evidence. The scientific explanations will be forthcoming from the future studies of mushroom scientists, and, for the present, the explanations presented by these workers in China provide reasonable working hypotheses. Qingyuan As mentioned in the section on historical background, Qingyuan is the birthplace of the artificial cultivation of Lentinula edodes dating to about A. The County of Qingyuan is located in a tropical monsoon climate, which is considered ideal for the production of L. At present, only 20% of the production comes from cultivation on wood logs, the remaining 80% is obtained by using the synthetic sawdust log technique. The overharvesting of wood has impelled the government to encourage farmers to abandon the traditional log technique. The imminent environmental damage of logging wood for mushroom cultivation has spurred new technological breakthroughs including improving the average biological efficiency of approximately 100%. This efficient production of one county represented 10% of the world production and one fifth of the Chinese output in 1993. This was one of the reasons the city was officially named by the Chinese Government as "Shiang-Gu (Lentinula edodes) City of China" in 1994 (Figure 13. It is interesting to note that the total population of the county is just less that 200,000 people, of whom 120,000 are directly engaged in mushroom cultivation. In terms of jobs, in 1997, the mushroom industry employed an additional 4000 persons in the trading and marketing of mushrooms, and about 2000 people are engaged in the manufacturing of plastics for bagging substrates, sales, production and maintenance of machinery, printing of labels and packaging, and related businesses. It is the main source of revenue of the local government, and in recent years, the economic status of the population of Qingyuan is among the 100 richest counties of some 3000 counties in China. Today, some 280 traders are active each day, except during the Chinese New Year Festival.
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Regarding the selected factors, the 26% of the farms fed more than 3L of colostrum within 6 h from the birth, 55% vaccinated the dams against enteric diseases, 16% constantly measured the colostrum quality and 48% fed only maternal colostrum. Individual milk yield was measured monthly and weekly milk yield from calving to 14 wk postpartum are reported. W92 Hair coat color comparisons between slick and wild typehaired Puerto Rican Holstein cows. Cows were obtained from Lajas Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Puerto Rico. Photos were taken from the left and right sides of each cow, close to a board of 43. When taking into consideration the 71 evaluated cows, no differences were observed between the left and right sides for black (P = 0. The electrical resistance of dairy cows is decreased with wet haircoats, standing on wet flooring, and touching wet metal. Herd size ranged from 300 to 4000 cows and parlors were parallel (n = 24) or herringbone (n = 5). The electrical resistance of each water sample was measured by inserting a 10 Ч 10 cm aluminum probe at 2 angles on the water surface (45 and 90 degrees) and at 2 water depths (8. During our freestall observations, all of the holding corrals, transfer lanes, cow alleyways and crossovers with waterers were wet from urine and feces. Wet splash plates and udders were more common from cows housed in open lot pens (median = 72%) during wet conditions versus covered freestalls (median 25%). In conclusion, the electrical resistance of Idaho dairy cows is decreased during the winter months due to wet conditions. The potential for wet contact of the udder with parlor splash plate varies with cow size, parlor type, and environmental conditions. Water resistance varies widely between locations and should be considered during farm evaluations. Assessment of temperature-humidity index showed that heat stress was mild in period 1 (74. Key Words: heat stress, milk production, prebiotic W95 Supplements of biotin, folic acid and vitamin B12: Their effects on cow metabolism during the transition period. Supplementary B8, B9 and B12 increased their respective plasma concentrations throughout the trial (P 0. These results suggested that B9B12 supplements increased productivity and altered energy metabolism in early lactation but, under the current conditions, when combined with B8, these effects were not observed. Soch2, 1National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute of Animal Production Nitra, Luzianky, Slovakia, 2South Bohemia University, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic. Group M allowed 21 d suckle, 63 d bucket fed; N allowed 84 d suckle; H allowed 1 d suckle, 83 d bucket fed. W97 Hair diameter comparisons between slick and wild typehaired lactating Puerto Rican Holstein cows. For example, a thicker hair diameter has been reported as an adaptation of tropical Brazilian Holstein cattle. Key Words: calf, milk replacer, component-based W99 A survey of diet characteristics related to feed particle size on buffalo farms in southern Italy. In Italy, a major part of that buffalo milk is used to manufacture mozzarella cheese. Herds averaged 136 lactating and dry cows (range 66 to 570), with mean daily milk/cow of 7. Samples of total mixed rations were analyzed for nutrient composition and particle size. Key Words: feed particle size, buffalo W100 Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in heat-stressed dairy cows. Key Words: electric heat blanket, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product, dairy cow W101 Effects of a new preventive strategy with acetylsalicylic acid on daily milk yield, milk conductivity and rumination in dairy cows after calving. Key Words: ovarian reserve, reproductive phenotype, antral follicle count W103 Association between milk yield and fertility by health status during early lactation. However, the confounding effect of health status adds complexity to these associations. Changes in Zn2+ intracellular levels posttreatment and blastocyst formation at d 9 post-activation were evaluated.
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Temperature is roughly maintained at 33 to 35°C by removing or adding the straw mats. Usually 5 days after the appearance of pinheads, the first mushrooms in the egg stage can be harvested. Mushrooms develop very rapidly, and they should be picked three times daily (morning, noon, and evening). The mushrooms of this second flush amount to approximately 25% of the total yield. The biological efficiency (fresh weight of mushrooms/air dry weight of substrate Ч 100) is about 20%. After growing the straw mushrooms, the spent compost can be dried and saved for autumn to grow Pleurotus sajor-caju. Conclusion Wheat straw, the basic substrate material for this mushroom production method, is sometimes burned. It may be used as bedding material for animals or as a soil conditioner, after a long period of composting. When the straw is used for the production of mushrooms, however, it is quickly converted to a highly acceptable food for human beings that is rich in protein. The early fruiting bodies usually appear in the area immediately surrounding the site of spawning or even on the spawn substrate itself. At this time, the mycelium is scattered only over the surface of the compost and has not yet formed a robust hyphal network throughout the compost. The fruiting bodies from such early fruiting are usually small, and the yield is low. Some mushroom farms in Indonesia and in Hong Kong have been troubled by this phenomenon of early fruiting. In seeking an explanation for this, and thus corrective measures, we must examine the developmental stages. The development of mycelium (the vegetative stage) consists not only of a quantitative increase but also of some qualitative changes, which are not necessarily revealed by morphological features. The qualitative changes are, nevertheless, extremely important in that through them the mycelium becomes robust, mature, and accumulates the abundant nutrients, which provide the basic materials from which the fruiting bodies develop. This is not a unique developmental pattern but is also found in the cultivation of other edible mushrooms. The optimal temperature for vegetative growth is 32 to 35°C, and for fruiting body development 28 to 32°C. An increase or decrease of temperature can directly influence a change in the developmental stage. For example, if the air temperature in the mushroom house and the bed temperature are lower than the optimum for growth and development of mycelium, this can cause not only retardation in the growth of the mycelium, but also an enhancement of the formation of fruiting bodies. Thus, (1) if the mycelium has not yet completed the quantitative and qualitative changes inherent in a mature mycelium that is established for fruiting, and (2) if the environmental conditions are those that favor fruiting, then the fruiting bodies will form sooner and be smaller than would be the case with a mycelium that was robust and had reached maturation. The reason for the phenomenon of early fruiting is, therefore, a lower than optimal temperature for vegetative growth or dropping the temperature to stimulate fruiting too early. It is extremely important in the practice of cultivating straw mushrooms to exercise strict control of the temperature in the mushroom house and the bed. To avoid the phenomenon of early fruiting the following points should be noted: 1. During composting, the moisture content of the compost should be controlled and adjusted to the range of 60 to 65%, because with this moisture content the necessary temperature of the compost can be controlled more easily. After pasteurization, when the temperature has come down to 35°C, spawning should be performed immediately and the bed should be covered with plastic sheets. The high temperature and high humidity conditions created by this treatment will assure the rapid development of the mycelium. Ventilation should not be given during the first 3 days following spawning because ventilation would lower the temperature and moisture in the mushroom house, and this would stimulate early fruiting. At 4 to 6 days after spawning the plastic sheet should be removed and the bed surface gently sprinkled with water, and at the same time ventilation should be given to decrease the temperature and moisture for the stimulation of fruiting.