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The entry site for the thoracentesis is based on the physical exam and radiographic findings. Percussion of dullness is utilized to ascertain the extent of the pleural effusion with the site of entry being the first or second highest interspace in this area. The entry site for the thoracentesis is at the superior aspect of the rib, thus avoiding the intercostal nerve, artery, and vein, which run along the inferior aspect of the rib (Fig. The needle should then be directed over the upper margin of the rib to anesthetize down to the parietal pleura. The pleural space should be entered with the anesthetizing needle, all the while using liberal amounts of lidocaine. If a therapeutic thoracentesis is being performed, a three-way stopcock is utilized to direct the aspirated pleural fluid into collection bottles or bags. Other studies on pleural fluid include mycobacterial and fungal cultures, glucose, triglyceride level, amylase, and cytologic determination. Post-Procedure A post-procedural chest radiograph should be obtained to evaluate for a pneumothorax, and the pt should be instructed to notify the physician if new shortness of breath develops. The posterior superior iliac crest should be identified and the spine palpated at this level. This represents the L3-L4 interspace, with the other interspaces referenced from this landmark. Note that the shoulders and hips are in a vertical plane; the torso is perpendicular to the bed. The skin is then prepped and draped in a sterile fashion with the operator observing sterile technique at all times. A small-gauge needle is then used to anesthetize the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The spinal needle should be introduced perpendicular to the skin in the midline and should be advanced slowly. The needle stylette should be withdrawn frequently as the spinal needle is advanced. Once the required spinal fluid is collected, the stylette should be replaced and the spinal needle removed. In general, spinal fluid should always be sent for cell count with differential, protein, glucose, and bacterial cultures. If a headache does develop, bedrest, hydration, and oral analgesics are often helpful. In this case, consultation with an anesthesiologist should be considered for the placement of a blood patch. Relative contraindications include bleeding diathesis, prior abdominal surgery, distended bowel, or known loculated ascites. If a large-volume paracentesis is being performed, large vacuum bottles with the appropriate connecting tubing should be obtained. The midline puncture should be avoided if there is a previous midline surgical scar, as neovascularization may have occurred. For a large-volume paracentesis, direct drainage into large vacuum containers using connecting tubing is a commonly utilized option. Specimen Collection Peritoneal fluid should be sent for cell count with differential, Gram stain, and bacterial cultures. Post-Procedure the pt should be monitored carefully post-procedure and should be instructed to lie supine in bed for several hours. If persistent fluid leakage occurs, continued bedrest with pressure dressings at the puncture site can be helpful. For pts with hepatic dysfunction undergoing large-volume paracentesis, the sudden reduction in intravascular volume can precipitate hepatorenal syndrome.
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Coping-skills training versus a problem-solving approach with schizophrenic patients. Systemic family therapy in schizophrenia: a randomized clinical trial of effectiveness. Metacognitive training for schizophrenia: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. The outcome of training community psychiatric nurses to deliver psychosocial intervention. Neurocognitive individualized training versus social skills individualized training: a randomized trial in patients with schizophrenia. Randomized controlled trial of occupational therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Psychoeducational psychotherapy for schizophrenic patients and their key relatives or care-givers: results of a 2-year follow-up. The effectiveness of supported employment for people with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial. The impact of supported employment and working on clinical and social functioning: results of an international study of individual placement and support. A trial of compliance therapy in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of oxytocin nasal spray and social cognition training for young people with early psychosis. Mirtazapine add-on improves olanzapine effect on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Change in neurocognition by housing type and substance abuse among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons. The effectiveness of peer support groups in psychosis: a randomized controlled trial. Dutch guideline on schizophrenia 2012: basic care within the areas of psychosocial interventions and nursing care. Predictors of employment for people with severe mental illness: results of an international six-centre randomised controlled trial. Computer-aided neurocognitive remediation as an enhancing strategy for schizophrenia rehabilitation. Safety and tolerability of switching to asenapine from other antipsychotic agents: Pooled results from two randomized multicenter trials in stable patients with persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Identifying cognitive remediation change through computational modelling-effects on reinforcement learning in schizophrenia. Gender differences in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia: results from the European first episode schizophrenia trial. Two-year study of relapse prevention by a new education program in schizophrenic patients treated with the same antipsychotic drug. Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia: a replication and randomized feasibility trial. Clinical trial of wellness training: health promotion for severely mentally ill adults. Systematic meta-analysis of the risk factors for deliberate self-harm before and after treatment for first-episode psychosis. Effects of extended case management on functioning in people with early psychosis-preliminary findings of the easy3 randomised controlled study. Can computer-assisted cognitive remediation improve employment and productivity outcomes of patients with severe mental illness? Evaluation of a psychoeducation program for Chinese clients with schizophrenia and their family caregivers. Mental health costs, other public costs, and family burden among mental health clients in capitated integrated service agencies. A capitated model for a cross-section of severely mentally ill clients: employment outcomes. Client outcomes in a three-year controlled study of an integrated service agency model. Risperidone and olanzapine versus another first generation antipsychotic in patients with schizophrenia inadequately responsive to first generation antipsychotics. Non-pharmacological interventions for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.
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But let health be once lost and even the most miserly would give the wealth of kings, if they had it to recover this precious thing. High Frequency Violet Ray Simply Explained High Frequency electric current has an entirely different effect on the human body than the crude, shocking results produced by ordinary current. The same current that is brought into the house for lighting and to furnish power is completely modified. Its volume or amperage is reduced to a low measure, while the pressure or voltage is tremendously increased and the oscillation raised exceedingly high. The result is that when this current is applied to the human body our nerves are insensible to the electric waves because of their enormous rapidity of movement. The Physiological Action of Violet Ray the Violet Ray acts on the blood, circulation, nervous system, cells and tissues. The physiological action of Violet Ray applied through the glass vacuum electrode may be summarized: Benefits all nutritive processes; the oxygenation of blood and tissue and increased elimination. To these primary results is attributed the great potency of the Violet Ray as an agent for relieving and eradicating human ills and restoring normal, healthy functioning of disordered parts. When removing the tube away from the point of contact a stimulating spark is produced. The current traverses the body in all directions from the point of entry, but is, of course, most intense and pronounced at the latter point. Violet Ray High Frequency for Following Ailments Abscesses Anemia Asthma Arteriosclerosis Baldness Blackheads Brain Fag Bronchitis Bunions Bruises Catarrh Circulatory Disorders Colds Chilblains Dandruff Deafness and Ear Diseases Eczema Facial Neuralgia Enlarged Prostate Falling Hair Female Complaint Goitre Gout Hemorrhoids Hay Fever Infantile Paralysis Insomnia Lameness Locomotor Ataxia Lumbago Nervous Affections Neuralgia Neuritis Obesity Pain in Abdomen and Chest Paralysis Piles Pimples Pyorrhea Rheumatism Scars Sciatica Skin Diseases Sore Throat and throat diseases Sprains Toothache Weak Eyes Wrinkles Warts and Moles Made Safe for Home Treatment the Renulife Violet Ray High Frequency Generator is so designed that anyone may take treatments right in his or her own home for any of the above diseases, with the aid of our charts and directions, which are written by experts. It is absolutely harmless and may be used upon the most delicate invalid or child without the least fear of injury. Most Compact and Convenient the Renulife Generators are the most compact,efficient and lowest priced Violet Ray generators on the market. They deliver a current of exceedingly high voltage and frequency, so necessary in electrical treatments. As will be seen by the illustrations the generators are very handsome in appearance. The advantages of these patented features are not available with any other generators on the market. Some Uses of Renulife Violet Ray We do not attempt in this booklet to give full specific directions for applying the Violet Ray treatment. Rheumatism Rheumatism of whatever kind is almost sure of certain relief by treatment with the Renulife Generator. We have known instances where after a single treatment of the Renulife Generator a sufferer has walked out and forgotten the cane with which he hobbled into the office. A thorough treatment has never been known not to give relief and in some cases every trace of the disease has disappeared in a very few treatments. In severe cases which have been dragging along for years a series of treatments is generally required. Neuritis Neuritis is an inflamed condition of the nerves, the pain simulating the pain of Rheumatism or Neuralgia. No matter how severe the pain the Renulife Generator will give relief in the very first treatment and normal conditions completely restored. You apply through your clothing to get the stimulating effect that brings circulation quickly to the part causing discomfort. Neuralgia the old definition of neuralgia: "The cry of a starved nerve for blood" holds to the present day, and the High Frequency Violet Ray current will certainly supply this want. In a few treatments the irritated nerves are soothed and the pain disappears like magic.
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Ingredients: Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Sabal serrulata 1X (prostatic hypertrophy; enuresis) 0. Oral vials: Each 100 ml contains: Hepar sulphuris calcareum 12X, 15X, 30X, 200X 0. Oral vials: Adults and children above 11 years: In general, 1 vial 1-3 times daily. Selenium-Homaccord Indications: For the temporary relief of stress-related mental fatigue including forgetfulness, lack of concentration and depressed mood. Ingredients: Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Kali phosphoricum 2X, 10X, 30X, 200X (exhaustion; mental and physical depression; confusion; memory loss) 0. Oral vials: Each 100 ml contains: Kali phosphoricum 6X, 10X, 30X, 200X, Selenium metallicum 10X, 15X, 30X, 200X 0. Ingredients: Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Sulphur 4X, 6X, 12X, 30X, 200X (skin dry, scaly, unhealthy; great itching and burning, worse from scratching and washing; pruritus from warmth; hot, sweaty hands) 20 ml each. Pharmacological Index Solidago compositum Indications: For the temporary relief of minor urinary discomfort including pain, burning upon urination and urinary urgency. Ingredients: Oral vials: Each 100 ml contains: Solidago virgaurea 3X (difficult and scanty urination), Baptisia tinctoria 4X (soreness of abdomen), Berberis vulgaris 4X (bladder pain; pain in thighs on urinating; frequent urination), Equisetum hyemale 4X (enuresis; burning pain in urethra), Argentum nitricum 6X (dark urine), Cantharis 6X (constant desire to urinate; tenesmus), Capsicum annuum 6X (strangury; urethritis), Cuprum sulphuricum 6X (cramp of smooth and striped musculature; uremia), Orthosiphon stamineus 6X (vesical and renal calculi), Pareira brava 6X (constant urging; great straining), Sarsaparilla 6X (severe pain at conclusion of urination), Terebinthina 6X (inflamed kidneys), Apisinum 8X (vesical tenesmus), Barosma 8X (irritable bladder; gravel), Coxsackie virus-A 8X (urinary tract disorders) Mercurius corrosivus 8X (vesical tenesmus), Vesica urinaria suis 8X (tenesmus), Hepar sulphuris calcareum 10X (bladder weakness; tendency to suppuration), Natrum pyruvicum 10X (factor of citric acid cycle), Pyelon suis 10X (urinary tract disorders), Ureter suis 10X (renal excretion disorders; nephrosis), Urethra suis 10X (chronic urethral irritation), Colibacillinum 13X (urinary tract disorders), Arsenicum album 28X (albuminous urine; abdominal weakness after urinating) 1 ml each in an isotonic sodium chloride solution base. Ingredients: Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Spigelia anthelmia 4X (violent palpitation; severe pain in and around eyes) 60 mg; Arnica montana, radix 4X (angina pectoris; eye fatigue), Cactus grandiflorus 4X (congestive headache; violent palpitation with vertigo), Gelsemium sempervirens 4X (orbital neuralgia; weak pulse; palpitation), Kali carbonicum 4X (palpitation; burning in heart region), Castoreum 6X (day-blindness; spasmodic affections), Glonoinum 6X (palpitation with dyspnea; threatened apoplexy), Ranunculus bulbosus 6X (day-blindness; bruised sternum and ribs), Sulphur 12X (burning in eyes; chest soreness) 30 mg each in a lactose base. Spascupreel Indications: For the temporary relief of muscle spasms anywhere in the body including abdominal cramps, menstrual cramps, spasmodic cough, intestinal colic, and smooth musculature spasms. Ingredients: Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Aconitum napellus 6X (abdominal colic, sensitive to pressure; inflammation; numbness) 60 mg; Ammonium bromatum 4X (spasmodic cough), Colocynthis 4X (cramp-like hip pain; muscular contraction; sharp pain in Pharmacological Index Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Solidago virgaurea 3X, Baptisia tinctoria 4X, Berberis vulgaris 4X, Equisetum hyemale 4X, Argentum nitricum 6X, Cantharis 6X, Capsicum annuum 6X, Cuprum sulphuricum 6X, Orthosiphon stamineus 6X, Pareira brava 6X, Sarsaparilla 6X, Terebinthina 6X, Apisinum 8X, Barosma 8X, Coxsackie virus-A 8X, Mercurius corrosivus 8X, Vesica urinaria suis 8X Hepar sulphuris calcareum 10X, Natrum pyruvicum 10X, Pyelon suis 10X, Ureter suis 10X, Urethra suis 10X, Colibacillinum 13X, Arsenicum album 28X 3 mg each in a lactose base. In acute disorders, initially 1 tablet every 15 minutes, over a period lasting up to two hours. Strumeel (Rx) Indications: For the adjunctive treatment of thyroid hypofunction including goiter and glandular swelling, dry, croupy cough and adiposis. Warning: Should not be used by persons with hyperthyroidism, iodine-induced goiter, or sensitivity to calcarea iodata. Ingredients: Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Spongia tosta 3X (swelling and induration of glands; goiter), 150 mg; Calcarea iodata 4X (thyroid enlargment; flabby children, subject to colds) 90 mg; Fucus vesiculosus 4X (non-toxic goiter; thyroid enlargement in obese patients), Silicea 4X (scrofulous children; suppurative processes), 30 mg each in a lactose base. Spigelon Indications: For the temporary relief of current and recurrent headache, congestive headache and headache with lightheadedness. Ingredients: Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Silicea 12X (headache from fasting; pain begins at occiput, spreads over head and settles over eyes), Thuja occidentalis 12X (headache as if pierced by a nail; rapid exhaustion and emaciation) 60 mg each; Belladonna 3X (throbbing pain, especially in forehead; pain worse from light or noise), Bryonia alba 3X (bursting, splitting headache, worse from motion), Gelsemium sempervirens 3X (pain in temple extending into ear; feeling of band around head; occipital headache), Melilotus officinalis 3X (sick, frontal, throbbing headache, relieved by nosebleed), Natrum carbonicum 3X (headache from slightest mental exertion, worse from sun or hot weather), Spigelia anthelmia 3X (pain beneath temples extending to eyes; violent, throbbing headache) 30 mg each in a lactose base. Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Silicea 12X, Thuja occidentalis 12X 20 ml each; Belladonna 3X, Bryonia alba 3X, Gelsemium sempervirens 3X, Melilotus officinalis 3X, Natrum carbonicum 3X, Spigelia anthelmia 3X 10 ml each. Dosage: Tablets: Adults and children above 6 years: 1 tablet sublingually dissolved completely in mouth 3 times daily or as directed by a physician. Pharmacological Index Strumeel forte (Rx) Indications: For the adjunctive treatment of thyroid hypofunction including goiter and glandular swelling, dry, croupy cough and adiposis. Warning: Should not be used by persons with hyperthyroidism, iodine-iduced goiter, or sensitivity to calcarea iodata. Ingredients: Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Spongia tosta 2X (swelling and induration of glands; goiter) 50 ml; Calcarea iodata 3X (thyroid enlargment; flabby children, subject to colds) 30 ml; Fucus vesiculosus 3X (non-toxic goiter; thyroid enlargement in obese patients), Silicea 8X (scrofulous children; suppurative processes) 10 ml each; (10 drops contain 70 mg iodine). Sulphur-Heel Indications: For the temporary relief of eczema, acne vulgaris, dermatitis and psoriasis. Ingredients: Tablets: Each 300 mg tablet contains: Caladium seguinum 4X (pruritus; burning sensation; insect bites itch intolerably), Capsicum annuum 4X (burning pain with general chilliness) 90 mg each; Pix liquida 6X (scaly eruptions with much itching; cracked skin that bleeds on scratching) 60 mg; Sulphur 4X (dry, scaly, unhealthy skin, worse from scratching and washing) 30 mg; Mezereum 4X (eczema with intolerable itching; ulcerative eruptions), Arsenicum album 6X (itching; burning; edema; urticaria; restlessness) 15 mg each in a lactose base. Tanacet-Heel Indications: For the temporary relief of symptoms due to disturbances of the digestive tract including gastritis and irritable bowel syndrome, colitis and symptoms secondary to parasitic infection such as enterobiasis (pinworm. Pharmacological Index Syzygium compositum (Rx) Indications: For the ancillary treatment of adult onset diabetes including stimulation of organ function, of enzyme systems and of peripheral circulation. Ingredients: Oral drops: Each 100 ml contains: Ignatia amara 4X (lability of mood; effects of grief and melancholy), Picric acid 4X (muscular debility; neurasthenia), Lycopodium clavatum 4X (emaciation; malnutrition; disturbed liver function), Phosphoricum acidum 4X (mental debility then physical; diabetes and periostial inflammation), Sarcolacticum acidum 4X (exhaustion with muscular prostration; cramp and stiffness of calves), Kreosotum 6X (profuse bleeding from small wounds; rapid decay of teeth with spongy bleeding gums), Secale cornutum 6X (debility; emaciation; excessive appetite and thirst), Arsenicum album 8X (septic infections; low vitality; insatiable thirst), Curare 8X (diabetes mellitus; debility of the aged and from loss of fluids), -Ketoglutaricum acidum 8X (exhaustion; dermatosis), Sulphuricum acidum 8X (tremor and weakness; sour vomiting; hiccough), Syzygium jambolanum 8X (lowers sugar in urine; diabetic ulceration; great thirst; emaciation), Hepar suis 10X (stimulation of hepatic detoxification), Natrum sulphuricum 10X (bitter taste in mouth; flatulence, worse in wet weather), Pancreas suis 10X (pancreopathy; chronic enteritis), Phloridzinum 10X, (symptoms of diabetes mellitus), Plumbum metallicum 18X (mental depression; gastralgia; progressive muscular atrophy) 1 ml each.
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Most modern ultrasound machines have the ability to provide visualization of both superficial and deep structures based on the type of probe used. Basic understanding of ultrasound theory is vitally important for the safe use of this technology. Ultrasound waves are created by a number of vibrating piezoelectric crystals contained in the head of a transducer attached to the ultrasound machine. Ultrasound waves penetrate tissues to different depths based on the probe frequency. Micromaxx Ultrasound Machine manufactured by SonoSite, Inc (Bothell, Wash) Figure 4-3. Hyperechoic structures (bone, nerves below the clavicle, vascular walls, and other connective tissues) therefore appear brighter on the screen, and hypoechoic structures (nerves above the clavicle, blood vessel lumens, lung, and other fluid-filled structures) appear darker (Figure 4-3). Acoustic impedance refers to the reduction in ultrasound wave energy that occurs as the wave passes through structures, which accounts for the depth limits on ultrasound penetration of tissues. Once the nerves are identified, the block is performed with the needle under direct visualization in the long-axis view (in plane) and the nerve in the short-axis view. Some experienced ultrasound operators prefer the out-of-plane technique (with the needle in short-axis view) for some blocks. Although this technique results in shorter needle distances to targeted nerves, it does not allow visualization of the entire needle during performance of the block. Both techniques allow the needle to be directed away from potentially dangerous areas and the local anesthetic to be deposited in multiple locations around the nerve for a safe, successful regional nerve block. This technique involves slowly injecting several milliliters of local anesthetic (or other fluid such as saline) to more precisely define the needle tip location. For example, if the injected fluid spreads away from the targeted nerve, the needle tip is probably external to the nerve sheath. Injected hypoechoic fluid also may enhance image clarity of the targeted structures. Many compact ultrasound machines are currently available with updated software that improves image quality to a standard until recently obtainable only in large, cumbersome, and expensive machines. Thorough familiarization with the ultrasound machine being used and its available options is necessary to obtain the best possible image for facilitating needle placement. Other advances in ultrasound software, such as clearer images through signal harmonics and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging, continually improve the value of ultrasound technology as a tool in regional anesthesia. The availability of this technology on a laptop, easily portable in the austere battlefield medical environment, is a particularly exciting advancement. Both tools likely enhance patient safety and improve nerve block success when used by a trained regional anesthesiologist. Note: the technology shown to demonstrate concepts in this chapter should not be considered as an endorsement of these products or companies. A detailed understanding of the anatomy of these nerve plexuses and surrounding structures is essential for the safe and successful practice of regional anesthesia in this area of the body. The cervical plexus is deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and medial to the scalene muscles. They include the phrenic nerve (diaphragm muscle) and the ansa cervicalis nerve (omohyoid, sternothyroid, and sternohyoid muscles). Stimulation of this nerve during interscalene block, which causes the shoulder to shrug, is occasionally mistaken as stimulation of the brachial plexus. Injection of local anesthetic based on this stimulation pattern will result in a failed interscalene block. The brachial plexus divisions pass posterior to the mid-point of the clavicle through the cervico-axillary canal. The posterior divisions of all three trunks unite to form the posterior Figure 5-1. The five roots unite to form the three and the thenar half of the muscles and skin of the trunks of the brachial plexus; superior (C5 and C6), palm.
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Cross References Flaccidity; Myelopathy; Paraplegia; Spasticity Paraphasia Paraphasias are a feature of aphasias (disorders of language), particularly (but not exclusively) fluent aphasias resulting from posterior dominant temporal lobe lesions (cf. Paraphasias refer to a range of speech output errors, both phonological and lexical, including substitution, addition, duplication, omission, and transposition of linguistic units, affecting letters within words, letters within syllables, or words within sentences. Morphemic: Errors involving word stems, suffixes, prefixes, inflections, and other parts of words. These may be further classified as: Semantic or categoric: substitution of a different exemplar from the same category. Verbal paraphasias showing both semantic and phonemic resemblance to the target word are called mixed errors. This may result from lower motor neurone lesions involving multiple nerve roots and/or peripheral nerves. Prevention of this situation may be possible by avoiding spasms, which are often provoked by skin irritation or ulceration, bowel constipation, bladder infection, and poor nutrition. Physiotherapy and pharmacotherapy with agents such as baclofen, dantrolene, and tizanidine may be used; botulinum toxin injections may be helpful for focal spasticity. The key anatomical substrates, damage to which causes the syndrome, are probably the interstitial nucleus of Cajal and the nucleus of the posterior commissure and their projections. The incidence of parkinsonism increases dramatically with age; it is also associated with an increased risk of death, particularly in the presence of a gait disturbance. Prevalence of parkinsonian signs and associated mortality in a community population of older people. Cross References Apraxia; Blinking; Bradykinesia; Dysarthria; Dystonia; Hypokinesia; Hypomimia; Hypophonia; Mask-like facies; Micrographia; Orthostatic hypotension; Postural reflexes; Rigidity; Seborrhoea; Sialorrhoea; Striatal toe; Supranuclear gaze palsy; Tremor Parosmia Parosmia is a false smell, i. Such smells are usually unpleasant (cacosmia), may be associated with a disagreeable taste (cacogeusia), and may be difficult for the patient to define. Causes include purulent nasal infections or sinusitis and partial recovery following transection of olfactory nerve fibres after head injury. Transient parosmia may presage epileptic seizures of temporal lobe cortical origin (olfactory aura), particularly involving the medial (uncal) region. The clinical heterogeneity of hemifacial atrophy probably reflects pathogenetic heterogeneity. The syndrome may result from maldevelopment of autonomic innervation or vascular supply, or as an acquired feature following trauma, or a consequence of linear scleroderma (morphoea), in which case a coup de sabre may be seen. There may be a sense that the patient is struggling against these displays of emotion, in contrast to the situation in other forms of emotional lability where there is said to be congruence of mood and affect, although sudden fluctuations and exaggerated emotional expression are common to both, suggesting a degree of overlap. Pathological laughter and crying following stroke: validation of a measurement scale and a double-blind treatment study. Cross References Automatism; Emotionalism, Emotional lability; Pseudobulbar palsy Peduncular Hallucinosis Peduncular hallucinosis is a rare syndrome characterized by hallucinations and brainstem symptoms. Brainstem findings include oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria, ataxia, and impaired arousal. Peliopsia, Pelopsia Peliopsia or pelopsia is a form of metamorphopsia characterized by the misperception of objects as closer to the observer than they really are (cf. Cross References Metamorphopsia; Porropsia Pelvic Thrusting Pelvic thrusting may be a feature of epileptic seizures of frontal lobe origin; occasionally it may occur in temporal lobe seizures. Choreiform disorders may involve the pelvic region causing thrusting or rocking movements. Cross References Automatism; Chorea, Choreoathetosis; Seizure Pendular Nystagmus Pendular or undulatory nystagmus is characterized by eye movements which are more or less equal in amplitude and velocity (sinusoidal oscillations) about a central (null) point. In acquired causes such as multiple sclerosis, this may produce oscillopsia and blurred vision.
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The pathophysiology of coprolalia is unknown but may be related to frontal (cingulate and orbitofrontal) dysfunction, for which there is some evidence in Tourette syndrome. Cross Reference Tic Copropraxia Copropraxia is a complex motor tic comprising obscene gesturing, sometimes seen in Tourette syndrome. Cross References Coprolalia; Tic Corectopia Corectopia is pupillary displacement, which may be seen with midbrain lesions, including transtentorial herniation and top-of-the-basilar syndrome, peripheral oculomotor nerve palsies, and focal pathology in the iris. Corneal Reflex the corneal reflex consists of a bilateral blink response elicited by touching the cornea lightly, for example, with a piece of cotton wool. As well as observing whether the patient blinks, the examiner should also ask whether the stimulus was felt: a difference in corneal sensitivity may be the earliest abnormality in this reflex. The fibres subserving - 93 - C Corneomandibular Reflex the corneal reflex seem to be the most sensitive to trigeminal nerve compression or distortion: an intact corneal reflex with a complaint of facial numbness leads to suspicion of a non-organic cause. Trigeminal nerve lesions cause both ipsilateral and contralateral corneal reflex loss. Cerebral hemisphere (but not thalamic) lesions causing hemiparesis and hemisensory loss may also be associated with a decreased corneal reflex. The corneal reflex has a high threshold in comatose patients and is usually preserved until late (unless coma is due to drug overdose), in which case its loss is a poor prognostic sign. The patient may assert that they are dead and able to smell rotten flesh or feel worms crawling over their skin. Although this may occur in the context of psychiatric disease, especially depression and schizophrenia, it may also occur in association with organic brain abnormalities, specifically lesions of the non-dominant temporoparietal cortex, or migraine. Cross References Capgras syndrome; Delusion; Disconnection syndromes Coup de Poignard Coup de poignard, or dagger thrust, refers to a sudden precordial pain, as may occur in myocardial infarction or aortic dissection, also described with spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Subarachnoid haemorrhage presenting as acute chest pain: a variant of le coup de poignard. Coup de Sabre Coup de sabre is a localized form of scleroderma manifest as a linear, atrophic lesion on the forehead which may be mistaken for a scar. This lesion may be associated with hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy, and neuroimaging may - 95 - C Cover Tests show hemiatrophy and intracranial calcification. Whether these changes reflect inflammation or a neurocutaneous syndrome is not known. The cover test demonstrates tropias: the uncovered eye is forced to adopt fixation; any movement therefore represents a manifest strabismus (heterotropia). The alternate cover or cross-cover test, in which the hand or occluder moves back and forth between the eyes, repeatedly breaking and re-establishing fixation, is more dissociating, preventing binocular viewing, and therefore helpful in demonstrating whether or not there is strabismus. It should be performed in the nine cardinal positions of gaze to determine the direction that elicits maximal deviation. Cross References Heterophoria; Heterotropia Cramp Cramps are defined as involuntary contractions of a number of muscle units which results in a hardening of the muscle with pain due to a local lactic acidosis. Cramps are not uncommon in normal individuals but in a minority of cases they are associated with an underlying neurological or metabolic disorder. Metabolic causes: Hypothyroidism; Haemodialysis; Hypocalcaemia; hyperventilation (with secondary hypocalcaemia). Symptomatic treatment of cramps may include use of quinine sulphate, vitamin B, naftidrofuryl, and calcium channel antagonists such as diltiazem; carbamazepine, phenytoin, and procainamide have also been tried. Assessment: symptomatic treatment for muscle cramps (an evidence-based review): report of the Therapeutics and Technology Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Cross References Fasciculation; Myokymia; Neuromyotonia; Spasm; Stiffness Cremasteric Reflex the cremasteric reflex is a superficial or cutaneous reflex consisting of contraction of the cremaster muscle causing elevation of the testicle, following stimulation of the skin of the upper inner aspect of the thigh from above downwards (i. The cremasteric reflex is lost when the corticospinal pathways are damaged above T12 or following lesions of the genitofemoral nerve. It may also be absent in elderly men or with local pathology such as hydrocele, varicocele, orchitis, or epididymitis. Cross Reference Reflexes - 97 - C Crossed Aphasia Crossed Aphasia Aphasia from a right-sided lesion in a right-handed patient, crossed aphasia, is rare, presumably a reflection of crossed or mixed cerebral dominance.
Although the lethality of weapons and severity of wounds continue to increase, casualty survival has never been higher. The increased survival rate results from many factors, including emphasis on early, advanced, far-forward surgical care; improved surgical and critical care techniques; availability of blood products; advances in body armor; and rapid ground and air evacuation to major medical facilities within and outside of the war zone. The rapid movement of casualties in particular has rendered opioid-based pain management protocols less appealing: the crowded, low-light, deafening, jolting, environment of evacuation aircraft makes monitoring difficult and magnifies the difficulties of opioid-only pain control therapy. Healthcare providers in this situation are less likely to use adequate doses of morphine because of valid patient safety concerns. The high numbers of healthcare providers in the evacuation chain and long evacuation distances further complicate opioid use. Many of these issues can be addressed by a multimodal pain therapy protocol, tailored to the austere medicine scenario, in which opioids are only part of the overall pain medication plan (Tables 26-1 and 26-2). Epidural/intrathecal infusions of narcotics should be avoided in patients who may be transported to the next level of care within 24 hours. It has been used extensively and exclusively for anesthesia in war casualties in a variety of conflicts and conditions. For perioperative pain management, ketamine has been shown to provide an additive analgesic effect when used with other medications preemptively, in epidural catheters, and as an intravenous infusion following major surgery. Small-dose ketamine has been found to be a safe adjuvant to opioids when reduced narcotic use is desirable. However, recent evidence indicates no significant increase in central nervous system symptoms in patients receiving ketamine (via patient-controlled analgesia, intravenous infusion, continuous intravenous infusion, or epidural) compared to patients receiving opioids alone. Subanesthetic concentrations of ketamine can provide postoperative antihyperalgesia, analgesia, and an opioid-sparing effect when used in combination with opioid medications (Table 26-3). The versatility of clonidine in providing anesthesia in a variety of clinical scenarios suggests it would be a useful addition to the field medicine medication list (Table 26-4). Dose-related side effects of clonidine include hypotension, bradycardia, and sedation. Dexmedetomidine, which is seven times more selective for 2-adrenergic receptors though of shorter duration than clonidine, has also been used for perioperative pain management, although profound sedation can complicate its use. One important consideration when using these medications in austere conditions is their propensity to suppress thermoregulatory responses, thus promoting the development of hypothermia. This approach is too new to determine its effectiveness, but the concept of prepackaged pain medications for use under defined conditions during war or disaster warrants further research and development. In theory, preemptive analgesia, using a multimodal approach, can prevent or at least attenuate the unwanted neurophysiological and biochemical consequences of untreated pain. Gabapentin at a total dose of 3,000 mg in the first 24 hours following abdominal hysterectomy has been shown to significantly reduce morphine consumption with minimal side effects. Although definitive evidence is lacking, research has suggested that gabapentin use with other analgesic medications may protect the patient from central sensitization to pain following surgery. Available evidence supports the inclusion of these medications in a field pain medicine plan. Medications of this class act through the inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake into postganglionic sympathetic nervous system nerve endings, enhancing the antinociceptive effects on these neurotransmitters. These medications are occasionally used following traumatic injury in combination with other pain medications as part of a multimodal approach. Early application of tricyclic antidepressants may have some benefit in preventing acute pain progression into chronic pain states (Table 26-7). However, the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these unconventional therapies will require further clarification before recommendations for use in an austere medical environment can be made. In addition to peripheral nerve blocks, local anesthetics can be very effective in the management of pain through subcutaneous injections around a wounded area or direct infusion into a wound using a catheter. Although the effectiveness of intravenous morphine is without question, the equipment and expertise to establish intravenous access may be lacking in austere battlefield or natural disaster situations. A possible alternative is transdermal delivery of fentanyl citrate, and a promising delivery device is the patient-controlled transdermal delivery system for fentanyl hydrochlo- ride. The device then delivers a 40-g fentanyl dose over a 10-minute period through a process of iontophoresis (the introduction of medication into tissue through means on an electric current).
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Pedicles were instrumented according to the straightforward trajectory on both sides. Specimens were mounted and loading to failure was performed perpendicular to the screw axis (either against the cephalad or the caudad aspect of the pedicle). Results: Mean failure when loading against the caudad aspect of the pedicle was statistically, significantly greater (454. In concordance with the failure data more bone was observed within the caudal half of the pedicle (87. Discussion and conclusion: Our results suggest that the caudal aspect of the pedicle is denser and stronger compared to the cephalad cortex. In turn, the incidence of intra-operative screw loosening and pedicle fracture may be reduced if the compressive forces (cantilever bending technique used during deformity correction) placed upon the construct are applied against the caudal portion of the pedicle. Lumbar Therapies and Outcomes 432 Development of Scoliosis Following Combat Related Hip Disarticulation and Hemipelvectomy A. Currently, surgeons either compress against the cephalad aspect of the pedicle, or vice versa. We set out to establish which aspect of the pedicle was the most dense, and to determine the optimal direction for screw compression during kyphosis/deformity correction. We set out to evaluate the bone density/trabecular width of the thoracic pedicle, and determine a correlation with resistance against compressive loading forces utilized during Introduction: Combat casualties subjected to highenergy blast trauma have experienced an increased incidence of devastating lower-extremity injury resulting in hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy. There have been limited reports of scoliosis following upper and lower extremity amputations, and no series reporting scoliosis following hemipelvectomy from combat injuries. We report the development of scoliosis in two combat casualties following hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of two combat amputees, who presented with scoliotic deformity following lower extremity amputations, either hip disarticulation or hemipelvectomy. We identified the involved levels and spinal deformity, Cobb angle and measured vertebral rotation using the Nash-Moe pedicle method. Inpatient and outpatient records were reviewed to determine the existence of back pain, activity level and prosthesis use. Patient reports no back pain, has limited prosthetic use, with mobility using a manual wheelchair. Approximately 1 year after his injury, a scoliosis survey of the patient upright in his prosthesis demonstrated dextroscoliosis from T12 to L5 measuring 26 degrees, with 2+ Nash-Moe rotation, and 3. Patient reports no back pain, has been using bilateral prosthetics and bilateral canes during physical therapy for gait training, but mostly using a manual wheelchair for mobility. Discussion and conclusion: To our knowledge we report the first case series of scoliosis development following combat related hip dislocation and hemipelvectomy. In our series, both patients were without pain or symptoms, and developed similar deformities with a sharp lumbar curve greater than 20 degrees and concavity away from the side of the hip disarticulation or hemipelvectomy. While our awareness of scoliosis following lower-limb amputation has increased, the incidence of scoliosis following combat related hip disarticulation and hemipelvectomy remains unknown. A larger retrospective study, including longterm follow- up of curve progression and the benefits of improved prosthesis design is needed. The main objetive of non fusion techniques is to preserve intervertebral mobility and good results among time. Several publications have determined the success of the short follow-up clinical results. Previous authors have suggested that gender and operative level are predictors of clinical outcome, while others have challenged this theory. Further studies, with longer follow-up, will be needed to prove our preliminary conclusions. Minimally invasive foraminotomy was developed to address cervical nerve root compression by direct visualization of pathology while minimizing tissue destruction on exposure, preserves muscle and ligamentous attachments to the spine, maintaining long term stability and decreasing postoperative pain and spasm. Conclusion this approach have several advantages over more invasive open procedures: reduced operative time, decreased hospital stay, decreased postoperative pain and muscle spasm such as earlier return to normal activity. Arias Solano2 1 Hospital Universitario del Rio, Neurosurgery, Cuenca, Ecuador, 2Hospital Universitario del Rio, Cuenca, Ecuador Traditional methods of cervical decompressive laminectomy require stripping of the posterior cervical muscular, as well as ligamentous, attachments to the spine, some patients will go on to develop iatrogenic swan neck deformity. The mean surgical time was 81 minutes, bleeding 30cc, time to discharge 10 hours and return to normal activities was mean 9.