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For example, if you eat chicken, you may well be aware of the superficial fascia; this lies under the skin and is a tough, transparent, tissue layer. This myofascia invests muscles like an envelope; it is plastic-like, and when it is injured or damaged, it becomes shorter, condensed and tighter. Trigger points mainly manifest in the myofascial tissue; the contracture of this fascia gives rise to nodules underneath the skin. Depending on where it is located, it is classified in many different ways: Endomysium A delicate connective tissue called endomysium lies outside the sarcolemma of each muscle fibre, separating each fibre from its neighbours, but also connecting them together. Perimysium A denser collagenic sheath called the perimysium binds each fasciculus. Epimysium the entire muscle, which is therefore an assembly of fasciculi, is wrapped in a fibrous sheath called the epimysium. Deep Fascia A coarser sheet of fibrous connective tissue lies outside the epimysium, binding individual muscles into functional groups. Embryological Development of Fascia An overview of the embryological origin of connective tissues may provide some insights into the formation and location of trigger points. Trigger points tend to manifest within the epimysium according to myofascial strain patterns. These patterns start to develop very early on in the developing embryo, and may also be related to foetal alignment in the womb. These strain patterns develop as we mature from childhood to adulthood and are influenced by, for example, posture, weight gain and mechanical injury. As stated above, fascia supports organs, wraps around muscles and condenses to form ligaments, aponeuroses and even bones. By the end of the seventh week of development, the embryo has most of its organs, bones, muscles and neurovascular structures in place. This filler is derived from mesodermal tissue, a primitive fascia that is constructed from cells, fibres and intercellular matrix. Stress and strain lines develop in these tissues, and bone salts are laid down, causing primitive ossification. An example of this is the pre-vertebral cartilage, which grows and pushes into the mesodermal connective tissue beds. As it does so, it creates lines of stress that help to maintain integrity and provide a scaffold for further directional growth. As the bones start to grow, the complexity of strains and directional pulls results in the differentiated spinal ligaments (flavum, posterior longitudinal, etc. Furthermore, it has been reliably demonstrated that primitive organ growth relies on this mesodermal intracellular matrix. This may make more sense when we consider that the bones, muscles, ligaments and myofascial elements of connective tissue all share a characteristic pattern of growth. The relationship between a developing muscle and its enveloping connective tissue myofascia is complex. At this point they develop, differentiate, mature and grow in size through mitotic cell reproduction to form the muscles as we know them. In other words, it is the growth of fascia along lines of stress and strain that is the powerhouse of muscle orientation and development. For example, a contraction of the biceps brachii muscle will exert a force on the fascia of the whole arm, shoulder and neck. Fascia has neither beginning nor end, and is described by anatomists according to location. On closer inspection the myofascial bags surrounding the muscles are actually part of a continuum. This may also go some way to explaining the referred pain patterns stimulated by pressing on a trigger point. Janet Travell & David Simons (1993) described a trigger point as, "A highly irritable localized spot of exquisite tenderness in a nodule in a palpable taut band of (skeletal) muscle. The size of a trigger point nodule varies according to the size, shape and type of muscle in which it is generated. Myofascial trigger points may well be implicated in all types of musculo-skeletal and mechanical muscular pain. Studies and investigations in selected patient populations have been carried out on various regions of the body.
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The resistancetraining aspect of the program, however, progresses to a minimum maintenance phase, while the training for specific skills needed to participate in the sport takes priority, increasing in intensity and progressing to a maximum phase. The specific program is based on the dominant physiologic demands of the sport (power or muscular endurance). The sports-specific maintenance program is performed in conjunction with other tactical and technical skills. This loss of total muscle mass is the result of a combination of physiologic phenomena, including specific decreases in the size and number of muscle fibers, changes in biochemical capacity and sensitivity, changes in soft tissue and fat, and a general loss of water content in connective tissue. In general, muscle strength of the lower extremities declines faster than muscle strength of the upper extremities. The disproportionate decline in muscle strength may be more related to disuse than to aging. Training programs that use slow-velocity contractions, repeated low-level resistance, and contractions over a range (from small to large) improve the strength outcome. However, when the ratio of lean muscle to fat, weight, and height differences are considered, the sex differences are less obvious. Based on a review of existing literature, Welle8 recommended that the intensity of muscle training be kept at about 80% of maximum capacity, two to three sets of eight to 12 repetitions for each exercise at this level of intensity with rest periods between sets. As maximum capacity increases, the amount of resistance should be increased accordingly. Increased muscle oxidative capacity, increased use of circulating nutrients, and strength gains from 30% to 100% have been documented in older and frail adults after strength training. In addition, certain medications may affect blood flow to the exercising muscle; therefore, a good history and screen are strongly advised before a muscle training program is initiated for older individuals. Unfortunately, no standardized screening protocol exists to identify which individuals should avoid muscle training. In the current medical system, routine screening using exercise testing equipment is not cost effective. One option is to more closely screen individuals with specific conditions, such as hypertension, using electrocardiogram and blood pressure monitoring during a weight-lifting stress test. Using an animal model, Brooks and Faulkner11 reported a maximum sustained power of old muscles to 45% of the muscles in young mice. However, if muscle fatigue and endurance are examined relative to strength, older individuals were found to be comparable to younger individuals. A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very frail elderly people. Understanding the relationship between strength and mobility in frail older persons: a review of the literature. Therefore, the number of exercises must be kept low (two to three) and only two strength-training sessions should be performed each week. The total number of sets performed is kept low, usually one to four, depending on whether power or muscular endurance is being trained. For muscle endurance, one to two sets of higher repetitions (10 to 15) should be performed and the rest intervals should be longer than normally suggested (Table 5-4). There, the reader will find details, specific techniques and protocols, and case studies that pull all this information together, allowing for a more complete understanding of the effective and efficient management and intervention for the client. Connective tissue, called the endomysium, serves as a cover for the single muscle fiber. Muscle fibers are bundled together into fasciculi, which are covered by perimysium. A number of fasciculus bundles make up the belly of the muscle, which is covered by the epimysium. The performance of muscle is affected by motor unit activation, cross-sectional area of the muscle, and the forcevelocity relationship. Muscle is composed of different fiber types, including slow oxidative, fast glycolytic, and fast oxidative glycolytic.
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Tech Note: Impact of additives on cold flow properties of biodiesel Fall/Winter 2005, volume 2, issue 2. Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties, Iowa State University. Response to February 7, 2008 Sciencexpress Article, Argonne National Laboratory, Transportation Technology R&D Center. Calcium and Magnesium Biodiesel can contain small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the form of abrasive solids or soluble metallic soaps. Soluble metallic soaps have little effect on wear, but they may contribute to filter plugging and engine deposits". Sodium and Potassium While most of the excess catalyst is removed with the glycerol, some sodium and potassium may be present in the biodiesel as abrasive solids or soluble metallic soaps. This may contribute to piston, fuel pump, injector, and ring wear and also engine deposits. High levels of sodium and potassium can also cause increased back pressure and reduced service life. For biodiesel, the maximum allowable concentration of sodium and potassium should be 5ppm. Phosphorus Content With stricter emission controls, catalytic converters are becoming more common for diesel powered equipment. Phosphorus content must be limited as it can cause damage to catalytic converters. Biodiesel has been shown to have a low phosphorous content (below 1 ppm) which satisfies the national requirement of 10 ppm. Flash Point this is the minimum temperature at which the fuel ignites on application of an ignition source; it has no direct relationship to engine performance but instead indicates the level of fire safety. The minimum flash point of biodiesel is much higher than diesel fuel and it "falls under the nonhazardous category under National Fire Protection Association codes. Alcohol Control the levels of unreacted alcohol remaining in the biodiesel must be controlled. This can be done one of two ways: measuring the volume percent of methanol content directly or through a high flash point value. While excess water can be contained in the biodiesel after production, the fuel most commonly comes into contact with water and sediment during storage. Sediment "may consist of suspended rust and dirt particles or it may originate from the fuel as insoluble compounds formed during fuel oxidation" (Van Gerpen et al. Kinematic Viscosity I-84 Biodiesel Multimedia Evaluation Final Tier I Report It is important to designate "a minimum viscosity as there can be issues of power loss due to injection pump and injector leakage" when fuels with low viscosity are used. Likewise, a maximum viscosity must be met for "considerations involved in engine design, size, and characteristics of the injection system". Because blended biodiesel/diesel fuel can exhibit relatively high viscosities, the maximum viscosity for biodiesel (6. Sulfated Ash the ash content describes the amount of inorganic contaminants such as abrasive solids, soluble metallic soaps, and residual catalysts. B100 essentially contains no sulfur; the sulfur content in biodiesel blends is due to the diesel fuel. The limits for Grade S15 and Grade S500 indicate a limit of 15 ppm and 500 ppm of sulfur content, respectively. In California, the California Air and Resource Board has set the sulfur content for diesel fuels at 15 ppm or less. Copper Strip Corrosion this is a test to measure the presence of acids or sulfur-containing compounds in the fuel. A copper strip is immersed in the fuel to determine the level of corrosion that would occur if biodiesel came in contact with metals such as copper, brass, or bronze. Aromatic content of fuels over the specified level can have a negative impact on emissions. To obtain the highest fuel availability, the cetane number should be as low as possible; otherwise fuel will be ignited too quickly. Cetane Index the Cetane Index is a limitation on the amount of high aromatic components in Grades S15 and S500. Cloud Point this is an important property as it "defines the temperature at which a cloud or haze of crystals appears in the fuel [and] relates to the temperature at which crystals begin to precipitate from the fuel" Petroleum based diesel fuel generally has a lower cloud point than biodiesel as it is not as susceptible to cold temperatures. There is currently no cloud point specification for biodiesel, although it does play a major role in cold weather operability.
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Inorganic mercury fungicides being used as fungicides include mercuric chloride, mercuric oxide, and mercurous chloride. Organomercury fungicides include (3-ethoxypropyl)mercury bromide, ethylmercury acetate, ethylmercury bromide, ethylmercury chloride, ethylmercury 2,3-dihydroxypropyl mercaptide, ethylmercury phosphate, N-(ethylmercury)-ptoluenesulphonanilide. The ingestion of wheat and barley seed treated with methyl mercury fungicides for sowing by a largely illiterate population in Iraq led to a major poisoning with mercury in 1971 to 1972 with a high fatality rate (84). The seed-about 95,000 tons of it-was intended for spring planting; there had been ample warning that the seed was unfit for consumption, but this warning was disregarded. More serious cases progressed to ataxia, hyperreflexia, hearing disturbances, movement disorders, salivation, dementia, dysarthria, visual field constriction, and blindness. In the most severe cases, individuals remained in a mute rigid posture altered only by spontaneous crying, primitive reflexive movements, or feeding efforts. This was the second major mercury disaster after the Minamata Bay disaster in Japan occurring between 1953 and 1960, when about 1200 people were poisoned and 46 died (89). Postmortem Findings in Mercury Poisoning In deaths caused by acute mercury poisoning, the mucosa of the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach is greyish in color showing superficial hemorrhagic erosions; a softened appearance of the stomach wall is characteristic. In cases where the patient survived a few days, the large bowel may show ulcerations. Microscopically, the kidneys usually demonstrate necrosis of the renal tubules (23). An autopsy carried out 30 hours postmortem revealed unspecific signs of intoxication including severe edema of the lungs and brain, dilatation of the bowel, and marked congestion of the parenchymatous organs. Between the gastric folds, the mucosa appeared highly preserved with a brownish discoloration, but streaklike erosions in the exposed parts. The mucosal surface of the oral cavity and esophagus also appeared brownish and discolored. Histologically, the pre- Agrochemical Poisoning 297 served areas of the gastric mucosa were totally unaffected by autolysis with an intact epithelial layer, whereas the eroded areas showed loss of mucosal lining with infiltrates of polymorphonuclear granulocytes and lymphocytes. Mercury was detected in the epithelial layer of the gastric mucosa in situ using 1,5diphenylcarbazone staining (0. Miscellaneous Fungicides A case of chronic arsenic poisoning in a 75-year-old man has been described; the man used a sodium arsenite-based fungicide for cultivating his vine yard (92). It has been used to fumigate agricultural commodities, mills, grain elevators, ships, furniture, clothes, and greenhouses. Its main advantages are its effective penetrating power and absence of danger of fire or explosion hazards. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 hours in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes (95). About 70% of methyl bromide produced in the United States goes into pesticidal formulations. Odorless and tasteless in low concentrations, it has a musty, acrid smell in high concentrations. It is estimated that about 75,000 American workers are occupationally exposed to this gas annually. Its toxicity is severe and, despite safeguards, cases of acute and chronic intoxication occur, mainly in the fruit and tobacco industries. Methyl bromide can enter homes through open sewage connections, thus causing fatalities. The sewage pipes serving two houses (one house was fumigated and in the other the 298 Aggrawal poisoning occurred) had been sucked empty only 1 to 2 hours prior to the start of fumigation. Because it depletes ozone into the atmosphere (95), methyl bromide has been banned in several industrialized countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes. Postmortem Findings and Histopathology the mucosa of trachea and bronchi is congested and shows petechial hemorrhages. The brain is edematous with necrosis of cortical cells, especially in the frontal and parietal lobes. Multiple perivascular hemorrhages may be detected throughout the brain and small subarachnoid hemorrhages may be seen in some cases. Circumscribed hemorrhages may also be present in stomach, duodenum, myocardium, spleen, and retina. The kidneys are acutely congested and show tubular necrosis on the micromorphological level; the proximal tubules are most commonly affected.
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Dichloromethane increased the incidence of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in two inhalation studies in male mice and three inhalation studies in female mice, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in three inhalation studies in male mice and three inhalation studies in female mice. Dichloromethane increased the incidences of haemangioma of the liver and of all organs (including the liver) in one inhalation study in male mice, and may have increased the incidence of haemangioma or haemangiosarcoma (combined) in the liver in one inhalation study in female mice. Dichloromethane increased the incidence of fibroma of the subcutis in two inhalation studies in male rats and fibroma or fibrosarcoma of the subcutis in one inhalation study in male rats. Dichloromethane caused salivary gland sarcomas in one inhalation study in male rats (the sialodacryoadenitis virus was detected in these rats; the effect of this virus on carcinogenesis is unknown). Dichloromethane increased the incidence of mammary gland adenoma or fibroadenoma (combined) in two inhalation studies in female rats and one inhalation study in male rats. Hepatic, neurological, renal, splenic, reproductive, and developmental toxicity have also been reported in humans or experimental animals. Overall, given the extensive evidence for genotoxicity, particularly in association with a metabolic pathway that is operative in humans, the Working Group concluded that the mechanistic evidence for dichloromethane carcinogenesis is strong. In human cells, dichloromethane induces micronucleus formation and sister-chromatid 242 6. Caldwell: evaluation of two different metabolic hypotheses for dichloromethane toxicity using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of in vivo gas uptake data exposure in female B6C3F1 mice, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 244, 280290, 2010. I Its concentration in alveolar air and blood during rest and exercise and its metabolism. Genetic variation in metabolic genes, occupational solvent exposure, and risk of non-hodgkin lymphoma. Interindividual differences in the in vitro conjugation of methylene chloride with glutathione by cytosolic glutathione S-transferase in 22 human liver samples. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride. Methylene chloride: a two-year inhalation toxicity and oncogenicity study in rats and hamsters. Incorporating biological information in quantitative risk assessment: an example with methylene chloride. Risk of leukemia and multiple myeloma associated with exposure to benzene and other organic solvents: evidence from the Italian Multicenter Case-control study. The gas chromatographic analysis of methylene chloride in breath, blood, and urine. Gender differences in risk of renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposures to chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Determination of volatile organic compounds in ambient air using active sampling onto sorbent tubes. Measurement of purgeable organic compounds in water by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry using nitrogen purge gas. Cosmetics; ban on the use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. Methylene chloridean inhalation study to investigate pathological and biochemical events occurring in the lungs of mice over an exposure period of 90 days. Epidemiologic investigation of employees chronically exposed to methylene chloride. Metabolism of inhaled dihalomethanes in vivo: differentiation of kinetic constants for two independent pathways. Hepatotoxic potency of various chlorinated hydrocarbon vapours relative to their narcotic and lethal potencies in mice. A cohort mortality study of cellulose triacetate-fiber workers exposed to methylene chloride. The relationship between multiple myeloma and occupational exposure to six chlorinated solvents. A case of methylene chloride (nitromors) poisoning, effects on carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Hadano: Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association. Effect of a single administration of benzene, toluene or m-xylene on carboxyhaemoglobin elevation and metabolism of dichloromethane in rats.
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It has been stated that "the true value of the lives and the physical and mental capabilities which are destroyed in motor vehicle accidents can never be adequately measured because the pain, suffering and frustration felt by the individual accident victim cannot be expressed in monetary terms" (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1983). It is the product of life expectancy and a measure of the quality of the remaining life years (Phillips 1998). The quantity of life is expressed in terms of survival or life expectancy and has few problems of comparison; people are either alive or not. Quality of life considerations however, cover a wide range of areas, not just health status. A number of approaches have been used to generate these quality of life valuations, referred to as health utilities. The utilities that are produced represent the valuations attached to each health state on a continuum between 0 and 1, where 0 is equivalent to being dead and 1 represents the best possible health state, although some health states are regarded as being worse than death and have negative valuations. There are many methods of eliciting utility weights and it is important to compare analyses that have used the same utility-weightings otherwise the comparisons will be invalid. Each of the five dimensions used has three levels; no problem, some problems and major problems, providing a total of 243 possible health states, to which unconscious and dead are added to make 245. Comparisons can then be made between interventions to assess their relative worth from an economic perspective, and a cost -utility analysis is the result. This measure places greater emphasis on the assessment of disability and permanent impairment. Questions arise not just about what should be measured and whether measurement is possible, but who should do the measuring. An estimate about post-operative quality of life made by a surgeon and that made by a patient might be wildly different. Bonneux (Bonneux 1998) showed that the elimination of fatal diseases would increase health costs because of the medical expenses that would be incurred during the added life years. He argues that this demonstrates that health status and burden of disease cannot be expressed in a single figure. Andrews (Andrews 1998) on the other hand, argued that qualitative measures of disability had greater importance in developed countries where medical advances and affluence have reduced premature mortality to very low levels. Andrews also noted that non-fatal conditions comprised a 72 much greater share of the total burden of disease in developed countries and therefore deserved higher priority in national goal setting. He states that "studies of burden of disease and policy priorities can be useful in decision making, provided that they tackle problems that policy makers are aware of, but that they are having less effect on what gets put on the policy agenda". He reported poor methodology in most of the studies examined and noted that appropriately categorising all costs represented the first step in improving quality and comparability of cost information. His assessment was made difficult because of the diverse and conflicting interpretations of cost found in the published studies. Barber (Barber 1998) performed a similar review of 45 papers and found that the cost of competing treatments were usually estimated using information about the quantities of resources used. The economic data was either unit cost data or from direct charges for health care. Barber argued that "For cost data, the crucial information is the arithmetic mean. This is because policy makers, purchasers and providers need to know the total cost of implementing the treatment. This total cost is estimated as the arithmetic mean cost in the trial, multiplied by the number of patients to be treated. The fact that the distribution of costs is often highly skewed does not imply that the use of the arithmetic mean is inappropriate. Barber argued that all cost data should be supported by a measure of precision (standard error or confidence interval) of the difference in mean costs between groups. The t test allows for an inference to be drawn between two 73 different mean costs of treatment. This method however assumes normality, which may not be present in highly skewed distributions of cost data. Any conclusion that could be extrapolated to future public policy needs to be justified in terms of the confidence interval and P value for the mean cost difference. Without any information about the precision of the mean cost difference observed, Barber argues that you cannot justify any conclusion. Because of the skewness of some data, the standard deviation alone is often not ideal.
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Individuals with this particular anomaly have a 46% incidence of sudden death, with more than 85% of the known cases of sudden death occurring during exercise. If an anomaly is detected and surgically corrected, the athlete may resume full activity and participation in competitive sports. Clinical manifestations of the disease include tall and slender habitus, striae atrophicae, disproportionately long extremities compared with the trunk, scoliosis, pectus excavatum or carinatum, and lens dislocation. Approximately 50% of patients with Marfan syndrome have cardiac symptoms such as mitral valve prolapse or aortic dilatation. Although commotio cordis most commonly occurs in baseball, it has also been reported to occur in ice hockey, lacrosse, softball, and fist fights. Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy involves a thickened muscular interventricular septum that bulges into the left ventricle and impedes forward flow, causing chest pain, shortness of breath, pre-syncope, or syncope. The systolic left ventricular contractile function is vigorous, but the thickened muscle of the left ventricle is stiff, resulting in impaired ventricular relaxation and high diastolic filling pressures. The nonobstructive form, which occurs when the thickened septum does not block forward flow, occurs in only 0. Some individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have experienced previous "warning" episodes of chest pain, dyspnea, syncope, or palpitations during vigorous activities. A family history of sudden unexplained death in young adults should also alert the clinician to the possibility of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The majority of young athletes who die of this condition have the nonobstructive form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the classic loud systolic ejection murmur that is present with the obstructive form may not be heard during the routine pre-sports physical examination (the obstructive form has a systolic murmur that is exacerbated with valsalva). Increased R wave peak time > 50 ms in leads V5 or V6 CrackCast Show Notes Pediatric Cardiac Disorders April 2018 In V1: Biphasic P wave with terminal negative portion > 40 ms duration; Biphasic P wave with terminal negative portion > 1mm deep 3. The most accurate study for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the echocardiogram, which will demonstrate various degrees of left ventricular hypertrophy and involving the ventricular septum in up to 90% of the cases. Assessment of the rise in arterial oxygenation with the administration of 100% oxygen. An arterial blood gas is measured after several minutes on high-flow oxygen (100% oxygen). Pulse oximetry is not an appropriate substitute for an arterial blood gas analysis; it is not sensitive enough to determine "pass or fail" of the test because a child breathing high-flow oxygen and registering 100% on pulse oximetry may actually have a Pao2 anywhere between 80 and 680 mm Hg See *** below to review the "risk" of hyperoxia See Table 170. The cardiothoracic ratio is not very accurate in preverbal children, in whom a good inspiratory view is rarely obtained 2. Increased pulmonary vascularity is present when the pulmonary arteries appear enlarged and are visible in the lateral third of the lung fields or the lung apices. Another marker of increased pulmonary vascularity is seen on the posteroanterior view of the chest radiograph: the diameter of the right pulmonary artery in the right hilum is wider than the internal diameter of the trachea. The cyanotic infant with increased vascular markings may have transposition of the great arteries, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, or truncus arteriosus You should take a look at where each heart structure is in relation to the film: CrackCast Show Notes Pediatric Cardiac Disorders April 2018 Left uncorrected, irreversible changes in the pulmonary arterioles leads to pulmonary vascular obstruction and pulmonary hypertension. This causes right-sided pressures to exceed those on the left, causing right-toleft shunting. The thymic borders are typically wavy in appearance and sometimes can be seen as the classic "sail sign" along the superior right border of the heart. The thymic shadow may not be visible radiographically in infants during times of physiologic stress but should reappear when the infant recovers. List features of pathologic heart murmur (7) the presence of a cardiac murmur may not be associated with an underlying cardiac defect. The location, intensity, quality, timing, and radiation of the murmur determine whether the murmur is suggestive of an underlying cardiac pathologic condition. Although systolic CrackCast Show Notes Pediatric Cardiac Disorders April 2018 The pulmonic flow murmur of the neonate is due to the relatively thin walls and angulation of the right and left pulmonary arteries at birth.
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For example, if the hamstring muscles are stretched for 15 to 30 seconds in the lengthened range, tension is created in the tendon. These nerve fibers have the ability to override the impulses coming from the muscle spindle, allowing the hamstring muscles to relax reflexively. This will ultimately allow the muscle being stretched to elongate, increasing muscle flexibility. More recently Nelson and Bandy17 and Davis et al18 showed gains in hamstring flexibility following static stretch. Duration Recommendations for the optimum duration of holding the static stretch vary from as short as 15 seconds to as long as 60 seconds. Bandy et al15,16 examined different durations of static stretching that were performed 5 days per week for 6 weeks. They examined the effects of hamstring muscle stretching on a relatively young sample across a variety of durations, including comparing groups that stretched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with a control group that did not stretch. The results indicated that 30 and 60 seconds of static stretching were more effective at increasing hamstring muscle flexibility than stretching for 15 seconds or not stretching at all. No difference was found between 30 and 60 seconds of stretching, indicating that the two durations had equal effect on flexibility. A 30-second static stretch was used by Nelson and Bandy17 and Davis et al18 to compare different types of stretching activities, further adding to the evidence that 30 seconds is the optimal time to stretch a muscle. Examining subjects older than age 65, Feland et al19 compared a control with groups who stretched the hamstring muscle for 15, 30, and 60 seconds for 10 weeks. Results indicated that the 60-second stretch produced the greatest gain in hamstring flexibility. The results of this one study suggest that the most effective duration of stretch may be effected by age. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of age on the most effective duration to maintain a static stretch for enhanced flexibility. In any synergistic muscle group, a contraction of the agonist causes a reflexive relaxation of the antagonist muscle. For example, during active flexion of the hip, reciprocal inhibition relaxes the hamstring muscles. Static Stretching Definition Static stretching is a method by which the muscle is slowly elongated to tolerance (a comfortable stretch, short of pain) and the position is held with the muscle in this greatest tolerated length. In this lengthened position, a mild tension should be felt in the muscle that is being stretched, and pain and discomfort should be avoided. In addition, because the static stretch in the 60 Ballistic Stretching Definition Therapeutic Exercise for Physical Therapist Assistants cause of the possibility of injury caused by uncontrolled jerking and bouncing motions and because the activation of the afferent nerve fibers of the muscle spindle causes a contraction of the same muscle that is being stretched. The individual sits on the ground with the legs straight out in front (long sitting) and reaches the hands forward as far down the legs as possible. Leaning forward by contracting the abdominal muscles, the individual quickly reaches toward the ankles (or, if possible, past the feet) and immediately returns to the original long-sitting position. This movement is repeated 10 to 15 times, with each bounce extending the arms a bit farther. Although research indicates that ballistic stretching increases muscle flexibility, some clinicians are concerned that the bouncing activity has the potential to cause injury, especially when a previous injury has occurred in the muscle. Theoretically, the quick, jerking ballistic motion can exceed the limits of muscle extensibility in an uncontrolled manner and result in injury. Impulses returning to the muscle via motor neurons cause the muscle to contract, thereby resisting the stretch. Thus, ballistic stretching has generally fallen out of favor among most clinicians be- Alternative Perspective Zachazewski1 questions whether static stretching has been overemphasized at the expense of ballistic stretching. He argues that the dynamic actions required for highperformance athletic movements require ballistic-type activities. If used appropriately, ballistic stretching may play a vital role in the training of an athlete because so many athletic activities are ballistic in nature.
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Presence and biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants and heavy metals in mammals of Donana National Park (Spain) 1982-1983. Pulmonary clearance and toxicity of intratracheally instilled cupric oxide in rats. Metabolism and pulmonary toxicity of intratracheallly instilled cupric sulfate in rats. Cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, and nickel in agricultural soils of the United States of America. Simultaneous determination of urinary zinc, cadmium, lead and copper concentrations in steel production workers by differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Problems associated with using filtration to define dissolved trace element concentrations in natural water samples. Fluxes and budgets of anthropogenic metals in the Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins off Los Angeles: Review and reassessment. A convenient method for the treatment of chronic copper poisoning in sheep using subcutaneous ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Corrosion in drinking water distribution systems: A major contributor of copper and lead to wastewaters and effluents. Trace elements in human clinical specimens: Evaluation of literature data to identify reference values. Comparison of batch and column methods for assessing leachability of hazardous waste. Effect of varying ascorbic acid intakes on copper absorption and ceruloplasmin levels of young men. Chronic exposure of HepG2 cells to excess copper results in depletion of glutathione and induction of metallothionein. Permeability and vascularity of the developing brain: Cerebellum vs cerebral cortex. Rabbit alveolar macrophages after inhalation of soluble cadmium, cobalt, and copper: A comparison with the effects of soluble nickel. Lung morphology and phospholipids after experimental inhalation of soluble cadmium, copper, and cobalt. Total cadmium, copper, and zinc in two dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, at the outflow of Lake Ontario. Case studies on the chemical composition of fogwater: the influence of local gaseous emissions. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, biological halflife, and status in humans. Bioavailability of copper in rats from various foodstuffs and in the presence of different carbohydrates. Copper absorption by women fed intrinsically and extrinsically labeled goose meat, goose liver, peanut butter and sunflower butter. Fractionation and mobility of copper, lead, and zinc in soil profiles in the vicinity of a copper smelter. Concentrations of mercury, copper, cadmium, and lead in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in the vicinity of a mercury smelter and a copper smelter. Adsorption and coprecipitation of copper with the hydrous oxides of iron and aluminum. Effects of oral copper administration to pregnant heterozygous brindled mice on fetal viability and copper levels. Heavy metals in the environment-Distribution of copper and cadmium fractions in two forest soils. Comparative analyses of contaminant levels in bottom feeding and predatory fish using the national contaminant biomonitoring program data. Contaminant loading in drainage and fresh water used for wetland management at Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge.
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End with "scrubbing" the hair by using quick, "washing"movements of the entire surface covered by hair. Inform the client that the therapeutic face work has ended, and ask her which area of her body she would like to have massaged, simply for relaxation, for the remaining 30 minutes. This exercise can be performed anywhere, anytime-although probably not in a crowd or when being observed too closely by coworkers. It is fun and silly enough to add a little humor to this otherwise psychologically devastating temporary condition. Explain the homework exercise to your client as follows, while demonstrating every move with your own face: Remember when you learned the vowels A E I O U in school? I want you to overenunciate each one very slowly while stretching every single muscle in your face and holding the position for several seconds at a time. She will begin to feel how the stretches affect every muscle of the face and will undoubtedly understand the value of performing this easy exercise frequently throughout the day. More Homework Assignments It is essential that your work be accompanied by exercise sessions the client performs twice a day. In addition to the previous exercises, you can give her the following, which can be done in any combination: Purchase a package of helium balloons (they are tougher to inflate), and blow up several throughout the day. Name some homework exercises for the client, and explain why self-care is important for this condition. Trauma, overuse, sustained pressure, or bacteria can disrupt the functioning of the bursae. As inflammation sets in, the sacs swell and small surrounding hemorrhages sometimes occur; the normally noninvasive sacs then push against surrounding tissue, causing pain and more inflammation. As the adjacent muscles receive the pain signal, they initiate small spasms in an attempt to brace (splint) the now painful joint. This cycle of inflammation and pain-spasm-pain must be halted or the condition will worsen. Diagnosis is made by physical examination after ruling out other possible joint conditions, such as arthritis, tendonitis, or sprains, and after a history taking of all activities. The pain-spasm-pain cycle of the muscles surrounding the affected joint, as well as the stiffened compensating muscles, can be treated to reduce painful symptoms, decrease hypertonicity, and remove accumulated cellular waste products. With more persistent or puzzling forms of bursitis, the physician might perform a needle aspiration (inserting a hollow needle into the bursa to draw fluid out) to determine whether the condition is septic or aseptic, local or systemic. Corticosteroid injections into the joint may be used to reduce inflammation if no infection is present. Surgical excision of the bursa is reserved for severe cases that do not respond to other treatments. A challenge to the healing process, especially for the athlete or the worker who depends on a certain activity for his livelihood, is the necessary change or eradication of the offending behavior that created the bursitis in the first place. Thinking It Through Before treating bursitis, the massage therapist should ask herself these questions: Do I have a firm diagnosis from a physician, or has the client self-diagnosed? While massaging over joints, in the area of released metabolites and waste products, in which direction should I "clean out" the debris using effleurage? Chronic bursitis: With the presence of fibrosis, adhesions, and trigger points, 45-minute sessions once a week on and around the affected joint and affected extremity, followed by 15 minutes of relaxation massage. Treating trigger points is covered in Chapter 43, and hands-on practice is essential to ensure no harm is done to the client. It is best to err on the side of caution until expertise in these techniques is achieved. The following protocols will focus on acute bursitis and chronic bursitis of the knee, but each explanation is applicable to bursitis occurring anywhere in the body. Getting Started: Acute Bursitis Comfortable, pain-free, and sometimes creative positioning, bolstering, and pillowing are necessary to ensure the safe treatment of acute bursitis. Therapeutic work is combined with relaxation massage techniques to distract and relax the client. Be willing to hear "war stories" about the occurrence of the bursitis: what brought it on, how much your client enjoyed playing tennis, or how miserable the working conditions are tiling those roofs in August. Always remember that there is a person and an interesting story attached to every condition.