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Potential and limitations of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer including pelvic lymph node staging: a critical analysis of the literature. Significance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography for the postoperative surveillance of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Computerized tomography in the preoperative staging for pulmonary metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Association of radionuclide bone scan and serum alkaline phosphatase in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Contemporary results of percutaneous biopsy of 100 small renal masses: a single center experience. Core Needle Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Alone or in Combination: Diagnostic Accuracy and Impact on Management of Renal Masses. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of Percutaneous Renal Tumour Biopsy. Imaging guided biopsy of renal masses: indications, accuracy and impact on clinical management. Image-guided biopsy-diagnosed renal cell carcinoma: critical appraisal of technique and long-term follow-up. Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy of renal masses. Multi-Quadrant Biopsy Technique Improves Diagnostic Ability in Large Heterogeneous Renal Masses. Prognostic factors and predictive models in renal cell carcinoma: a contemporary review. Multicenter determination of optimal interobserver agreement using the Fuhrman grading system for renal cell carcinoma: Assessment of 241 patients with > 15-year follow-up. A proposal for reclassification of the Fuhrman grading system in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Comparisons of outcome and prognostic features among histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma. Prognostic value of histologic subtypes in renal cell carcinoma: a multicenter experience. Treatment and overall survival in renal cell carcinoma: a Swedish populationbased study (2000-2008). Survival among patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in the pretargeted versus targeted therapy eras. Identification of deregulated oncogenic pathways in renal cell carcinoma: an integrated oncogenomic approach based on gene expression profiling. Cachexia-like symptoms predict a worse prognosis in localized t1 renal cell carcinoma. Prognostic significance of modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with nonmetastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor and fibronectin predict clinical response to high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. Serum carbonic anhydrase 9 level is associated with postoperative recurrence of conventional renal cell cancer. A 16-gene assay to predict recurrence after surgery in localised renal cell carcinoma: development and validation studies. Specific genomic aberrations predict survival, but low mutation rate in cancer hot spots, in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A CpG-methylation-based assay to predict survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. A postoperative prognostic nomogram predicting recurrence for patients with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Use of the University of California Los Angeles integrated staging system to predict survival in renal cell carcinoma: an international multicenter study. A preoperative prognostic model for patients treated with nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Systematic review of oncological outcomes following surgical management of localised renal cancer. Management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas: radical versus nephronsparing surgery.
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In contrast to Type 1 diabetes, the rate of substantive hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is lower, ranging from 2. As mentioned, these data are from hospital populations and in the pilot population, highly committed and well educated in diabetes, it is likely, using careful selection criteria, that the rate may be lower. Selection criteria On the basis of the literature review it would be appropriate to consider only Type 2 insulin-treated diabetes with its lower prevalence of hypoglycaemia. The following selection criteria are based on criteria used by one Contracting State: · · No hypoglycaemic episodes requiring the intervention of another party during the previous 12 months. Stability of blood glucose control in the year prior to certification as measured by glycosylated (glycated) haemoglobin which should be less than twice the upper limit of normal for the laboratory assay. The individual should have good diabetic education and be well motivated to achieve good control. There should be no evidence of hypoglycaemic unawareness and the individual should fall into the "low risk group of hypoglycaemia" shown in Table 1. In addition the individual should be regularly monitored by a diabetologist to exclude any complications. Pilots in this age group usually have extensive flying experience and are likely to exhibit more mature judgement skills than their more junior colleagues. By selecting Type 2 diabetics and returning them to the flight deck with a multi-crew limitation, the risk is further reduced due to the incapacitation training that commercial pilots are required to undergo when operating on multi-crew flight decks. This risk can be further mitigated by a stipulation that the pilot must inform his colleagues on the flight deck of the nature of his multi-crew endorsement and instruct them in actions should mild or severe hypoglycaemic events occur. In any long-haul operation there is ample time to check blood sugar levels at regular intervals and the availability of carbohydrate is not a problem. In a short-haul operation it is unlikely that the blood sugar will change dramatically over a one-to-two-hour period but at the midpoint of the flight, monitoring should be carried out. Provided these interventions are given adequate attention, this approach has potential benefit to the aviation industry as well as to the pilots concerned. It is, however, clear that any licence holder who requres insulin for treatment must be carefully assessed and those who are believed to be at low risk of complications must agree to cooperate fully with the Licensing Authority. The Authority must be confident that all relevant reports will be supplied to it in a timely manner. Monitoring procedures It is essential that individuals who are accepted for this approach use a glucometer which is regularly calibrated and has a memory chip. The pilot must carry a supply of 10 g portions of readily absorbable carbohydrate to cover the duration of the flight. During the flight the blood glucose should be monitored every 30-60 minutes, and if it falls below 6. If, for operational reasons, the inflight blood glucose measurement cannot be done, then 10 g of carbohydrate should be ingested. The frequency of monitoring during flights/duty periods over two hours may be reduced depending on individual circumstances, in consultation with the diabetologist and an aviation medicine specialist. Blood glucose should be measured approximately 30-45 minutes prior to landing and if the blood glucose has fallen below 6. With modern diabetic management involving prandial bolus injections of insulin, it is reasonable on long-haul flights to have the diabetic pilot inject at appropriate times. In flights over eight hours it is likely that the aircraft will carry "heavy crew" (one or more pilots in addition to the minimum required to operate the aircraft) and thus this should not present a significant problem. If, despite this approach, the blood glucose exceeds 15 mmol/L, medical advice should be sought in order that corrective therapeutic measures may be taken. A standard operating procedure needs to be in place to deal with the situation when medical advice. End points this approach balances risk and benefit, but should event rates exceed those experienced in the literature and stated above, consideration should be given to discontinuing any programme that permits certification of Type 2 diabetic insulin-treated applicants. In the United Kingdom approximately 1-2 professional pilots/20 000 per annum show failure of treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents and require insulin, and it is likely that similar numbers may occur within the jurisdiction of other Authorities. Several factors may explain why patients with Type 2 diabetes are less prone to severe hypoglycaemia. Normally, as plasma glucose concentrations fall, there is a hierarchy of defence responses. The first is an increase in the release of counter-regulatory hormones as plasma glucose falls to approximately 3.
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Figure 1 shows the frequency of re-assessment during follow-up by renal function categories. Renal function was assessed only by serum creatinine measurements in 7 centres (17. The survey mostly reflects the clinical practice of arrhythmologists, and the low response rate is a limitation. Dabigatran is 80% renally eliminated and should not be used in patients with a CrCl of,30 mL/min. Potpara (co-chair), Serge Boveda, Jian Chen, Jean Claude Deharo, Dan Dobreanu, Stefano Fumagalli, Kristina Haugaa, Torben Bjeregaard Larsen, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Antonio Madrid, Elena Sciaraffia, Milos Taborsky, Roland Tilz. Strategies for atrial fibrillation-related symptom reduction Renal dysfunction promotes arrhythmogenic substrate development and alters drug pharmacokinetics. Chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances or implantable electrical devices: clinical significance and implications for decision making-a position paper of the European Heart Rhythm Association endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society. Oral anticoagulant therapy in atrial fibrillation patients at high stroke and bleeding risk. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association practical guide on the use of non-vitamin k antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in chronic hemodialysis patients. The services are designed to provide beneficiaries with comprehensive information regarding the management of comorbidities, including for purposes of delaying the need for dialysis; prevention of uremic complications; and each option for renal replacement therapy. The benefit is also designed to be tailored to individual needs and provide the beneficiary with the opportunity to actively participate in his/her choice of therapy. New / Revised Material Effective Date: January 1, 2010 Implementation Date: April 5, 2010 Disclaimer for manual changes only: the revision date and transmittal number apply only to red italicized material. However, if this revision contains a table of contents, you will receive the new/revised information only, and not the entire table of contents. Complications can develop from kidneys that do not function properly, such as high blood pressure, anemia, and weak bones. When chronic kidney disease progresses, it may lead to kidney failure, which requires artificial means to perform kidney functions (dialysis) or a kidney transplant to maintain life. Pre-dialysis education can help patients achieve better understanding of their illness, dialysis modality options, and may help delay the need for dialysis. Education interventions should be patient-centered, encourage collaboration, offer support to the patient, and be delivered consistently. A session that lasts at least 31 minutes, but less than 1 hour still constitutes 1 session. Spanish Version: "La informaciуn proporcionada no confirma la necesidad por servicios similares por mбs de un mйdico durante el mismo periodo. Spanish Version: "La informaciуn proporcionada no justifica la necesidad de esta cantidad de servicios o artнculos en este periodo de tiempo por lo cual Medicare no pagarб por este artнculo o servicio. Contractors shall return to the provider any hospice claims billing for revenue code 0942 when other services are also included on the claim. Contractors shall ensure that hospice claims billed for 0942 are paid from the Part B Trust Fund. Spanish Version: "Este servicio no estб cubierto cuando es rendido, referido u ordenado por este proveedor. Contractors shall post this article, or a direct link to this article, on their Web site and include information about it in a listserv message within 1 week of the availability of the provider education article. In addition, the provider education article shall be included in your next regularly scheduled bulletin. The contractor is not obligated to incur costs in excess of the amounts allotted in your contract unless and until specifically authorized by the contracting officer. If the contractor considers anything provided, as described above, to be outside the current scope of work, the contractor shall withhold performance on the part(s) in question and immediately notify the contracting officer, in writing or by e-mail, and request formal directions regarding continued performance requirements. Medicare Claims Processing Manual Chapter 32 - Billing Requirements for Special Services Table of Contents (Rev. In order to bill for a session, a session must be at least 31 minutes in duration. Is provided either individually or in a group setting of 2 to 20 individuals who need not all be Medicare beneficiaries. Hospital outpatient departments bill for this service under any valid/appropriate revenue code.
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An evaluation of the renal function based on creatinine studies and urinalysis is also necessary. Marked pyuria or bacteriuria and the presence of nitrite or leukocyte esterase should raise suspicion of an infected and possibly obstructed stone. Diagnostic procedures such as stone analysis, urine pH, 24-hour urine collection, and serum studies are necessary to understand the source of the stone disease. Urine culture should be performed even in the absence of other signs of acute infection in order to rule out an occult infectious process. Radiographic studies are also important for further functional and anatomical evaluation of a possible obstructing calculus. Calcium-containing calculi may have various degrees of opacity, with calcium apatite having the highest radiodensity. This study can provide both functional and anatomical information to guide the treatment of a licence holder with a urinary calculus. Delayed contrast uptake into the renal parenchyma may reveal an acute obstructive picture commonly known as the "obstructive" nephrogram. Further radiographic signs of acute obstruction may include dilation of the collecting system, ipsilateral renal enlargement, and even forniceal rupture with urinary extravasation. Chronic obstruction may present with a dilated, tortuous ureter, renal parenchymal thinning, crescentic calyces, and a "soap bubble" nephrogram. Its current ubiquity, low risk of morbidity from contrast reactions, and speed make it an excellent choice for early diagnosis. Ultrasonography is a commonly used tool in patients that should not receive contrast or be exposed to radiation. Inciting aetiologies may include hypercalcaemia from hyperparathyroidism or other medical causes, idiopathic hypocalcuria, low urinary citrate, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. This treatment inherently disqualifies the patient from aviation duties but allows for the rapid resolution of pain and avoids the use of oral medications, which are often difficult to administer in nauseated patients. However, their use may diminish renal blood flow and intra-renal haemodynamics, which may be detrimental to renal function. Furthermore, relieving obstruction is necessary when there is evidence of progressive renal deterioration, pyelonephritis or unrelenting pain. Temporizing manoeuvres may have to be undertaken until more definitive procedures can be carried out, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, or ureteroscopic stone extraction. All treatment including conservative management aimed at encouraging the natural passage of the stone, surgery, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy will necessitate grounding until recovery. The most common morbidity associated with both procedures is bleeding, which is usually self-limiting. Interestingly, and ironically, some studies have shown reduction in ureteral peristalsis following fluid administration, which may inhibit further passage of stone in spite of increased diuresis. Prior to issuance of a licence or permitting a licence holder to return to aviation duties, a comprehensive urological examination should be performed. The assessment should be based on the presumptive risk of in-flight incapacitation. In some cases, a licence may be issued with certain operational limitations such as a commercial 2 Doppler ultrasonography: application of the Doppler Effect in ultrasound to detect movement of scatterers (usually red blood cells) by the analysis of the change in frequency of the returning echoes. It makes possible real-time viewing of tissues, blood flow and organs that cannot be observed by any other method. For first-time stone formers, the risk ranges from 20 to 50 per cent over the first ten years with an overall lifetime recurrence rate of 70 per cent. Luckily, however, most smaller stones and even stones up to 810 mm diameter will pass spontaneously in less than two weeks, despite the often incapacitating pain they produce. However, if the stones are located such that they are unlikely to pass into the calyx, the risk for incapacitation during flight is low. If the urinary studies do not reveal any underlying risk factors for recurrent stone formation, then medical certification for aviation duties may be considered. However, environments that predispose to dehydration may encourage renal stone formation without other underlying factors. Haematuria may be the heralding sign for a medical condition, which may not necessarily be an aeromedical disqualifier, but may necessitate an aeromedical evaluation and disposition. Bleeding into the urinary tract from a source between the urethra and the renal pelvis should result in no protein, cells or casts. Haematuria at the beginning or end of the stream may indicate a urethral or prostatic source.
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Birds up to 11 weeks of age show a swelling of the infraorbital sinuses which, in contrast to pheasants, are filled with a fibrinous, cheesy exudate (Figure 38. Free-ranging Redlegged Partridge usually develop clinical disease in August to December. Isolates are assumed to be identical to strains removed from pheasants and other partridges. Rock Partridge Disease has been described only in chicks and not in the respective breeding flock. Peafowl Affected birds are lethargic, shake their heads to remove sticky nasal exudates, have swollen infraorbital sinuses and make gurgling respiratory sounds. Domestic Duck A variety of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma strains can be isolated from domestic ducks. In the few isolates that have been evaluated experimentally, pathogenicity is limited to mild respiratory lesions, conjunctivitis and cloacitis. Most of the Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma strains described are capable of causing increased embryonic mortality. Domestic Goose Geese suffering from cloacitis and necrosis of the phallus were found to be infected with mixed cultures of M. Phallus lesions are characterized by serofibrinous inflammation of the mucous membrane of the lymph sinus, the glandular part of the phallus, and occasionally the cloaca and the peritoneum. Necrosis of the affected phallus can be severe if secondary pathogens are present. High numbers of infertile eggs and a high incidence of embryonic death are common in affected flocks. The organism can be isolated from the respiratory tract and feces of breeding birds showing embryonic mortality. Large quantities of necrotic debris were surgically removed from both intraorbital sinuses. The bird responded to postsurgical therapy with tylosin (courtesy of Helga Gerlach). The frequent colonization of the pharyngeal mucosa is epizootiologically important because pigeons feed their offspring crop milk. During the act of regurgitation the crop milk passes over the infected mucosa and may be contaminated. Although egg transmission has been proven, this means of transmission might play the most important role. Clinical signs of rhinitis, sinusitis, tracheitis and conjunctivitis are generally chronic in nature and vary with secondary factors such as concomittant infections with Salmonella spp. Under these conditions, mycoplasmatales can be isolated from the lower third of the trachea, air sacs and occasionally lung, and birds frequently have persistent respiratory sounds and serofibrinous inflammation of these organs. The association between the colonization of the meninges and synovial structures by mycoplasmatales and the frequency of arthritis and meningoencephalitis caused by salmonellosis has not been determined. Further evidence for the apathogenicity of uncomplicated mycoplasmatal infections in pigeons is the fact that humoral antibodies only occasionally develop following natural or experimental infections. In contrast to some older reports, experimental infection of chickens with pigeon mycoplasma strains does not lead to clinical disease. Experimentally infected three-week-old chicks developed mild to severe air sacculitis, but were clinically asymptomatic. The budgerigar strain propagated in the embryonated chicken egg and showed no embryonal pathogenicity. Cockatiel It has been assumed that conjunctivitis in cockatiels can be caused by mycoplasmatales, (see Color 26) as wet sneezes and sinusitis are common in those birds. Although mycoplasmatales can be isolated from some of these cases, their importance in the disease process has not been determined. From the clinical course and response to treatment it can be concluded that chlamydiosis and infections with polyomavirus are the main pathogens in these conditions. Severe Macaw An epornitic of mycoplasma was described in Severe Macaws with clinical and pathologic lesions in the respiratory tract. Mild air sac lesions were induced in budgerigars, but the strain was apathogenic for chickens.
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A subconjunctival hibernoma was successfully excised from a two-year-old male white goose. The neoplasm involved the ventrolateral aspect of the right sclera and protruded through the palpebral fissure, interfering with eyelid closure. Xanthomas occur frequently in gallinaceous and psittacine birds, appearing as yellow, single-to-multiple, discrete subcutaneous nodules or diffuse thickenings of skin that may be featherless, ulcerated or hemorrhagic (Color 25. These neoplasms are firm on palpation, poorly encapsulated, highly vascularized and usually arise in the subcutis of the sternum or uropygial gland area. Alternatively, osmicated tissue specimens may be processed routinely and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Liposarcoma: Liposarcomas are malignant, fatty Although the precise etiology of xanthoma formation is unknown, various theories have been proposed including high-lipid diets or ingestion of toxic fat-soluble substances (such as aromatic chlorinated hydrocarbons) that might incite inflammation and trauma. Unresectable or multiple skin xanthomas may respond to irradiation (low-energy X-rays; 20 to 30 Gy) or hyperthermia. In chickens, connective tissue neoplasms can arise following infection with specific strains of avian leukosis or sarcoma virus. Fibrosarcoma: Fibrosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of fibroblast or mesenchymal cells, which possess the ability to produce collagen fibers. These rare neoplasms may arise wherever connective tissue exists including the foot pad, cranium, leg, kidney, commissure of the beak and within the thoracic cavity. In myxosarcomas, neoplasMyxoma and Myxosarcoma: these neoplasms are of Clinically, fibrosarcomas are firm, single-to-multiple, broad-based, relatively immobile nodules or masses. Superficial fibrosarcomas may be covered by an intact-to-ulcerated epidermis accompanied by hemorrhage and secondary bacterial infections. Fibrosarcomas commonly arise from the soft tissues of the wing, leg, head, beak, cere and trunk (Col or 25. Fibroma: A fibroma is an uncommon benign neoplasm composed of well differentiated fibroblasts distributed within a collagenous matrix. Physical examination revealed numerous masses throughout the body that were confirmed by radiographs. Histopathology indicated an invasive fibrosarcoma involving the soft tissues and bones of the head (courtesy of Jane Turrel). Radiographically, a large, uniform, soft tissue mass with osteolysis involving the humoral head and diaphysis was noted. Cytology of a fine-needle aspirate confirmed fibrosarcoma (courtesy of Marjorie McMillan). Granulation tissue may be highly vascular and proliferative with variable degrees of inflammation. Grossly, granulation tissue may have a proliferative or neoplastic-like appearance. Cytologic specimens often contain a pleomorphic population of immature fibroblasts that mimic neoplasia. Histologically, tissue architecture is a differentiating feature of the lesion wherein blood vessels are oriented at right angles to the surface of the lesion, while fibroblasts are oriented parallel to the surface of the lesion. Marked, proliferative fibroplasia with granuloma formation also may be observed in the ceca of gallinaceous birds, especially pheasants, infected with Heterakis isolonche (see Color 14). In such instances, nematode-induced reactive fibroplasia may be difficult to distinguish from neoplasia. Laminated keratin pearls may be observed within epithelial cell cords in companion and free-ranging birds. Uropygial Gland Adenoma and Adenocarcinoma: Uropygial gland neoplasms occur sporadically in captive birds, especially budgerigars and canaries. Neoplasia must be distinguished from adenitis, which usually requires histologic examination. Feather Folliculoma: Feather folliculomas occur primarily in canaries and budgerigars. Microscopically, these lesions appear multilobulated and are lined with irregular, hyperplastic, basaloid cells that exhibit feather formation. Basal cells are arranged in barb ridges and undergo abrupt squamous differentiation in the center of the mass, forming laminations of free keratin. The anatomic location of these benign neoplasms may interfere with vision, prehension of food or perching if the lesions are severe (Color 25.
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Effects of citrate acid concentrate (Citrasate) on heparin requirements and hemodialysis adequacy: a multicenter, prospective noninferiority trial. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs; April 1998; New Orleans. Development of anti-N-like antibodies during formaldehyde reuse in spite of adequate predialysis rinsing. Effects of Reprocessing on Hemodialysis Membranes [doctoral thesis in chemical engineering]. Department of Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University College of Engineering; 2005. Hemodialysis with cuprophane membrane modulates interleukin-2 receptor expression. These surfaces exhibit a variable degree of thrombogenicity and may initiate clotting of blood, especially in conjunction with exposure of blood to air in drip chambers. The resulting thrombus formation may be significant enough to cause occlusion and malfunction of the extracorporeal circuit. Clot formation in the extracorporeal circuit begins with activation of leukocytes and platelets, leading to surface blebbing and shedding of surface membrane lipidrich microparticles, which initiate thrombin generation, activation of coagulation cascades, further thrombin formation and fibrin deposition. Visualization of the circuit can be best accomplished by rinsing the system with saline solution while temporarily occluding the blood inlet. Arterial and venous pressure readings may change as a result of clotting in the extracorporeal circuit, depending on the location of thrombus formation. An advantage of using blood lines with a postpump arterial pressure monitor is that the difference between the postpump and venous pressure readings can serve as an indicator of the location of the clotting. An increased Factors Favoring Clotting of the Extracorporeal Circuit Low blood flow High hematocrit High ultrafiltration rate Dialysis access recirculation Intradialytic blood and blood product transfusion Intradialytic lipid infusion Use of drip chambers (air exposure, foam formation, turbulence) 14. If the clotting is occurring in or distal to the venous blood chamber, then the postpump and venous pressure readings are increased in tandem. If the clotting is extensive, then the rise in pressure readings will be precipitous. A clotted or malpositioned venous needle also results in increased pressure readings. The presence of a few clotted fibers is not unusual, and the headers often collect small blood clots or whitish deposits (especially in patients with hyperlipidemia). More significant dialyzer clotting should be recorded by the dialysis staff to serve as a clinical parameter for adjustment of anticoagulant dosing. It is useful to classify the amount of clotting on the basis of the visually estimated percentage of clotted fibers in order to standardize documentation. In units practicing dialyzer reuse, automated or manual methods are used to determine the clotting-associated fiber loss during each treatment. Dialyzers suitable for reuse characteristically have <1% fiber loss over each of the first 510 reuses. When no anticoagulant is used, dialyzer clotting rate during a 3- to 4-hour dialysis session is substantial (510%), and when this occurs, it results in loss of the dialyzer and blood tubings, plus loss of approximately 100180 mL of blood (the combined fill volume of the dialyzer and blood line in the extracorporeal circuit). This is an acceptable risk in many patients judged to be at moderate to high risk of anticoagulant-induced bleeding, because bleeding in such patients may often result in catastrophic consequences, and for such patients anticoagulation-free dialysis (described below) can be appropriately used. However, for the great majority of patients, who are judged not to be at a markedly increased bleeding risk, some form of anticoagulation must be employed. There is considerable variability among regions of the world, countries, and even dialysis units about what type of anticoagulation is used during intermittent hemodialysis. Despite a number of promising alternatives, heparin remains the most common anticoagulant used. A small number of dialysis units anticoagulate the blood circuit using trisodium citrate, and in special circumstances, direct thrombin inhibitors such as argatroban, heparinoids (danaparoid, fondaparinux), prostanoids, and nafamostat maleate may be used as alternative anticoagulants. While it is impor- tant to understand the principles of how clotting tests can be used to monitor heparin therapy, in the United States, because of economic constraints, the relatively low risk of bleeding complications from use of heparin during dialysis, and regulatory issues (the requirement for local laboratory certification), heparin therapy is ordinarily prescribed empirically, without monitoring of coagulation.
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Feather cysts may occur within any feather follicle, but those on the wing and tail are the most challenging to the surgeon. In canaries, feather cysts are most common in Norwich, Gloucester and their crossbreeds. These birds have been genetically selected to produce an extra downy type of feather (soft feathering) that may predispose them to this syndrome (see Color 24). If damage is sustained to one side of the follicle, feather growth becomes asymmetrical and the feather may grow in a curled fashion inside the follicle, resulting in a feather cyst. Feather cysts on the wing that are treated by lancing and curettage frequently recur. Fulguration with a radiosurgical unit has been reported to be successful in some cases; however, the depth of destruction is difficult to control, resulting in damage to adjacent follicles. Use of laser for follicle excision does not appear to improve the long-term clinical results. As adjacent feathers begin to regrow, debris should be gently removed by flushing with warm sterile saline several times daily. With a single cyst or a large feather, the follicle may be saved by marsupializing the lining of the cyst with the skin surrounding the follicle. An incision is made centered on the cyst, parallel to the direction of feather growth. Redundant tissue is excised and the follicle is thoroughly lavaged with sterile saline. The margin of the cyst is then sutured to the skin using a simple continuous pattern of fine suture. Feather cysts of the tail may be severe and disfiguring, requiring amputation of the pygostyle. Blunt dissection to the coccygeal vertebrae allows disarticulation at the sacrococcygeal junction without entering the cloaca. Feather cysts on the body are easily removed using elliptical or fusiform excision followed by primary skin closure. A technique for radical excision of an entire pteryla of affected feathers in canaries has been described. The main vascular supply to the tract is located centrally at the cranial third of the pteryla. Large cysts may be supplied by relatively large individual vessels that should be coagulated or ligated. Despite the significant-sized defect, skin apposition is easily accomplished using a monofilament suture in a simple continuous pattern (braided material may damage the skin). Removal of one or more pterylae from the body wall does not seriously affect the cosmetic appearance of the bird. Feather cysts may occur secondary to any factor that damages the follicular epithelium. For feather cysts on the wing, blade excision appears to be the treatment of choice. Feather cysts on the body are removed using elliptical or fusiform excision followed by primary skin closure. Xanthomas of the Wing Tip Xanthomatosis is characterized by the deposition of a rubber-like proteinaceous material within the skin and is frequently associated with inflammation of underlying tissues (see Color 25). Xanthomas at the wing tip may cause the wing to droop, resulting in trauma to the mass. Probucola (25 mg/day for an Amazon parrot) and dietary management should be used in combination with surgical excision of the mass. Serum cholesterol levels should be closely monitored because they are usually elevated in birds with xanthomatosis and should be medically reduced to a normal level prior to surgery. The wound may be protected with tissue adhesive or a hydroactive dressing, which should be changed every three to five days. If subcutaneous tissues are involved (especially bone), the affected wing may require amputation. Excision of the Uropygial Gland Impaction of the uropygial gland may respond to medical management using hot, moist compresses and gentle expression of the contents. In some cases, the gland may rupture, causing inflammation and scar tissue formation in the surrounding tissues. A fusiform incision is made along the dorsal midline to incorporate the papillae of the gland.