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The distance between health care workers and clients can be substantial, and difficult to bridge. Differences in knowledge, the difference between the theory of modern medical science, which was taught to health workers in medical school, and the local beliefs that clients have, cultural differences and many other things, are at the basis of misunderstanding, dissatisfaction and low use of services (Wolffers 1990). Already in Alma Ata, in 1978, almost all governments of the world acknowledged that ill-health is related to poverty and to unfair living conditions, which are the result of powerlessness of the poor. After Angola, Mozambique and Malawi, Zambia is fourth in Southern Africa on the Human Poverty Index ranking. On the Human Development Index, a measure for achievements in three aspects of human development (longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living), Zambia is number 153 out of 173 countries. The realisation that poverty reduction is essential to improve health, makes one sceptic about the chance of success of new approaches, the revitalisation of the Health Sector Reform in 258 General Discussion Zambia, millennium development goals, joint mission identification teams, and what more. If the distribution of wealth on earth could be more fair, if debts could be reduced, if hospital budgets in sub-Saharan Africa could be tenfold and households could spend ten times more money, there would be far fewer problems and people would be healthier as a result. The improvements in child survival and life expectancy that were achieved in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s have been reversed. Currently, other preventive and promotive programmes are barely functioning effectively. Of course, the hardest battle against the virus needs to be fought in changing sexual behaviour and condom distribution. Human resources problems have been described repeatedly in Chapters 2, 4, 7 and 8. Hardship allowances and attractive packages for those who are prepared to work in rural districts are some of the possible solutions. The unfairness of how the world is organised and arranged comes to expression in health and poverty indicators in an extremely confronting way. Equity also means that each setting should be studied separately and thoroughly, to identify those factors which make one particular setting different from others, and to make arrangements for improving a particular setting. They show how people in Kalabo District believe they should be assisted to solve their health problems. The results and recommendations of relevant studies, which should be action-oriented, should guide policy-makers to develop, in close co-operation with the people, measures and programmes to improve the situation. Only then, if there is true respect for the owners of the district, is there a possibility that sustainable, community-based and meaningful services and programmes can be designed. The major consequence is that the majority of research results do not go beyond two copies of a report, which is subsequently shelved. Of course, studies like those presented in this thesis can be criticised because of methodological concerns. However, suspicion of subjectivity in the interpretation of, for example, factors that contibute to the low utilisation of maternal health care, should not discourage efforts to identify them. The facility-based maternal death review meeting aims at identifying general areas for improvement, rather than quantifiable indicators, and a discussion about issues of access to and quality of services among all those involved in decision-making might be more important than arriving at the precise list of contributing factors. Research on the utilisation of heath services at (rural) district level and laboratory studies that focus on increasing resistance levels of malaria parasites to drugs take place in different environments and therefore need to be based on different approaches. Professionalism in development research is based on knowledge and experience of how to deal with these unfavourable conditions without sacrificing basic scientific principles. Studies should be repeatable and transparent, methods and results should be shared and discussed with others, and the results should lead to recommendations which can be implemented easily. These are the main issues of scientific quality in applied research (Wolffers 2000). It will imply a different role for academic health researchers with other priorities. Some maternal health problems in Kalabo, which are not very different from those in many other districts in sub-Saharan Africa, have been described in Chapters 6­10. There are many more maternal health problems, however, which have not been discussed in this thesis. It was at this conference, in 1987, that the Safe Motherhood Initiative, a global effort that aims to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, was launched.

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The choice for Foucault (2014) is based on the way the author deals with power relations that involve the State and the Individual, from the construction of the criminal legislation, from punitive means, from physical violence, torture, to modern methods, such as prisons. The French philosopher suggests that "in any society, the body is trapped within very tight powers, which impose limitations, prohibitions or obligations" (Foucault, 2014, p. Regarding social relations and the exercise of power, the configuration of power comprises: a disciplinary society, from the beginning of the 17th century to the middle of the 18th century, marked by the development and diffusion of disciplinary power; the surveillance society, from the second half of the 18th century to the mid-19th century, centered on visibility games that imply the development of surveillance practices and the formation of a broad social Panopticism (Prado Filho et al. However, he defends the existence of power relations, that is, "disparate, heterogeneous forms, in constant transformation. Power is not a natural object, a thing; it is a social practice and, as such, historically constituted" (Foucault, 1995, p. Foucault (2014) understands that disciplinary power creates a cellular form of individuality. This composition originates a combinatory individuality that treats individual bodies as mobile elements, to be connected to other individual bodies, and which controls time to maximize the extraction of their forces and to combine them with others for better results, dismissing verbalization and explanation4. The purpose of surveillance-power applicability is to make visible those you want to have under control. From surveillance, "power becomes a multiple, automatic and anonymous mechanism" (Foucault, 2014, p. It is a power that is both indiscreet and discreet, because if on the one hand it is everywhere and always alert, on the other it always works in silence. Power is characterized by a fine surveillance that is present in all levels and, therefore, does not impose itself under a single focus, making it self visible and oppressive. Discipline enables the functioning of a relational power that sustains itself by its own mechanisms and that replaces the uninterrupted play of calculated gazes for the spectacle of public events. Thus, calculated observations, visibility and permanent surveillance find legitimating based on the architecture of the Panopticon. For Mills (2003), disciplinary power is a practice that is exercised over individuals even before appearing as an institution and as a State. These are habits that establish the normalization and automatic compliance of the individual, revealing the approach of disciplinary power and subjection. The major effect of the Panopticon is to induce in the inmate a conscious and permanent state of visibility, which ensures the automatic functioning of power. The purpose of this is to ensure that: the surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action; the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnecessary; that this architectural apparatus should be a machine for creating and sustaining a power relation regardless of the person who exercises it; in short, that the inmates should be caught up in a power situation of which they are themselves the bearer. Therefore, the essential factor is that the person knows they are being watched, although there is no need to be effectively monitored. The "Panopticon is a Discipline machine for dissociating the see/being seen dyad: in the peripheric ring, one is totally seen, without ever seeing; in the central tower, one sees everything without ever being seen" (Foucault, 2014, p. In this context, whoever is subjected to a field of visibility, and who knows it, appropriates the conditions of surveillance on their own, and becomes the principle of their own subjection. The Panopticon then presents itself as a magnificent machine not only for subjection, but also for self-subjection (Hoffman, 2018). Therefore, the Panopticon has a role of amplification, power is organized, not for power itself, nor for the immediate salvation of a threatened society, what matters is to strengthen the social forces ­ to increase production, to develop the economy, to spread the education, raising the level of public morality, to increase and multiply (Foucault, 2014). Panopticism is the general principle of a new "political anatomy" whose object and end are not the relations of sovereignty, but the relations of discipline. Thus, in a society in which the main elements are no longer the community and public life, but private individuals on the one hand, and the State on the other, relations can only be regulated in a way that is the exact reverse of the spectacle. Julius saw this surveillance structure as a historical process that was fully accomplished in what Bentham described as a technical program. Our society is one not of spectacles, but of surveillance; under the surface of images, one invests bodies in depth; behind the great abstraction of exchange, there continues the meticulous, concrete training of useful forces the circuits of communication are the supports of an accumulation and a centralization of knowledge; the play of signs defines the anchorages of power; the totality of the individual is amputated, repressed, altered by our social order, it is rather that the individual is carefully fabricated in it, according to a whole technique of forces and bodies (Foucault, 2014, p. Bentham defines another way of analyzing the social body and the power relations that traverse it, in terms of practice, he defines a process of subordination of bodies and forces that must increase the utility of power while practicing the economy of the prince. Panopticism is the general principle of a new political anatomy whose object and end are not the relations of sovereignty, but the relations of discipline (Foucault, 2014). Therefore, the solution of the Panopticon to the question of the productive increase of power can only be assured if, on the one hand, it has the possibility of being exercised continuously in the foundations of society, in the most subtle way, and if, on the other hand, it functions outside these violent forms that are linked to the exercise of sovereignty (Prado Filho, 2005).

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Causes include arthritic conditions, vaginal surgery/tumour/trauma/atrophy, uterine prolapse, endometriosis, congenital problems, hymenal problems, pelvic congestion, and sexually transmitted infection. Orgasmic dysfunction is an inability to attain orgasm (anorgasmia) or an undue delay in attaining orgasm. As in male impotence, orgasmic dysfunction may be primary (never attained) or secondary (ability lost). About 20% never or hardly ever achieve unassisted orgasm during sexual intercourse; 30% almost always achieve 2122 2123 Implants/prostheses are used less often nowadays than they were in the past. Studies of pudendal nerve conduction and evoked potentials can be performed if indicated. Treatment is aimed at education, reduction of fear, and enhancement of sexual arousal. Antidepressant-induced anorgasmia may respond to cyproheptadine 2-16 mgs before sexual activity. Cyproheptadine is a serotonin antagonist and may sometimes cause a relapse of depression in individuals prone to develop it. They progress through mutual fondling (active and passive), eventually caressing breasts and genitalia (so-called sensate focus). This is all accompanied by therapeutic evaluation and attempts to improve general relationship problems. The initial ban on intercourse, the aim being to reduce performance anxiety, was first suggested by John Hunter in the 18th century. Some unusual conditions Pseudocyesis (phantom pregnancy), which is also found in other mammals, is basically a form of conversion hysteria with lordosis of the lumber spine, depression of the diaphragm, and possibly aerophagy (air- swallowing). The frequency of the condition is not known for sure (1 in 200/250 maternity clinic admissions). Psychological explanations include an extreme desire to conceive or fear or guilt surrounding pregnancy. Simulated pregnancy: A woman declares herself to be pregnant when she knows she is not. Delusional pregnancy: A woman (or man) believes she is pregnant (even with the Messiah! It has followed loss of a baby and rejection by the spouse in a schizophrenic Indian woman. It is not delusional, although delusions of male pregnancy may occur, as in schizophrenia. Spontaneous miscarriage/abortion 25% of women have a miscarriage at some stage of their lives. The role of counselling/debriefing is less certain as Lee ea (1996) found that debriefing a couple of weeks after the event had the same effect as no intervention at 4 months in a preliminary study. One theory is that it is 1" to 3" inches above the anterior opening of the vagina. When Breuer tried to discharge Anna O she developed an hysterical parturition, which, according to Jones (1961), he handled by hypnosis of the patient and taking an anxious exit himself! Vessey ea (2003) found no effect of the contraceptive pill on overall mortality: however, if the patient also smoked the mortality rate was increased and more so if she smoked cigarettes heavily. Because of increased progesterone levels during pregnancy, she may need less psychotropic drugs, but she may have an increased requirement following delivery. Sterilisation Females: Cooper ea (1982), in a prospective study, found that the operation does not significantly increase the likelihood of psychiatric disorder. Certain categories of women require extra counselling prior to elective sterilisation: 0-1 children, youth, poor marital relationship, and personality disorder. Adverse factors include a poor interpersonal relationship, being pressured into having the procedure, refusal by the male partner to have a vasectomy, youthfulness, ambivalence, sterilisation hard on the heels of induced abortion, and regret when done soon after the birth of a baby that fails to survive. Lipowski and Wise (2003) set out five major models of psychiatric consultation in the general hospital setting: patient-oriented (diagnosis, assessment, psychodynamic formulation), crisis-oriented (rapid assessment, coping and problem evaluation, immediate intervention), consultee-oriented (what problem does the referring clinician have with this patient? In 1833, Ralph Fletcher pointed out that the brain could exert a malevolent influence on the body.

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Buccelletti F, Iacomini P, Botta G, Marsiliani D, Carroccia A, Gentiloni Silveri N, Franceschi F. Efficacy and safety of vernakalant in recent-onset atrial fibrillation after the European medicines agency approval: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ford J, Milnes J, Wettwer E, Christ T, Rogers M, Sutton K, Madge D, Virag L, Jost N, Horvath Z, Matschke K, Varro A, Ravens U. Ranolazine: ion-channel-blocking actions and in vivo electrophysiological effects. Ranolazine stimulates glucose oxidation in normoxic, ischemic, and reperfused ischemic rat hearts. Comparison of effectiveness of ranolazine plus amiodarone versus amiodarone alone for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Ranolazine enhances the antiarrhythmic activity of amiodarone by accelerating conversion of new-onset atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Ranolazine enhances the efficacy of amiodarone for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation associated with ivabradine treatment: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased incidence of newonset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension. Upstream therapies for management of atrial fibrillation: review of clinical evidence and implications for European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Preoperative statin therapy in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of 90,000 patients. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis of patients undergoing cardioversion. Long-term follow-up of patients from a randomised trial of atrial versus ventricular pacing for sick-sinus syndrome. Effects of physiologic pacing versus ventricular pacing on the risk of stroke and death due to cardiovascular causes. Treatment of atrial fibrillation with antiarrhythmic drugs or radiofrequency ablation: two systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. Impact of Complete Versus Incomplete Circumferential Lines Around the Pulmonary Veins During Catheter Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Gap-Atrial Fibrillation-German Atrial Fibrillation Competence Network 1 Trial. Five-year follow-up after catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation using the stepwise approach and prognostic factors for success. Five-year outcome of catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation using termination of atrial fibrillation as a procedural endpoint. Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Catheter ablation treatment in patients with drug-refractory atrial fibrillation: a prospective, multi-centre, randomized, controlled study (Catheter Ablation For the Cure Of Atrial Fibrillation Study). Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: results from a randomized study comparing pulmonary vein isolation versus antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Updated worldwide survey on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial fibrillation. Long-term outcomes of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. A minimal or maximal ablation strategy to achieve pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a prospective multi-centre randomized controlled trial (the Minimax study). Relationship Between Pulmonary Vein Reconnection and Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence. Luik A, Radzewitz A, Kieser M, Walter M, Bramlage P, Hormann P, Schmidt K, Horn N, Brinkmeier-Theofanopoulou M, Kunzmann K, Riexinger T, Schymik G, Merkel M, Schmitt C. Maintenance of sinus rhythm with an ablation strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation is associated with a lower risk of stroke and death. Is There Still a Role for Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrogram Ablation in Addition to Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients With Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation? The prevalence and risk factors for atrioesophageal fistula after percutaneous radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: the Canadian experience. Procedural complications, rehospitalizations, and repeat procedures after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.

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Khouri may be slightly overstating the case-digital activists in the Middle East can boast of quite a few accomplishments, particularly when it comes to documenting police brutality-but his overall concern about the long-term effects of digital activism on politics at large is well-justified. Seeing how the worlds of offline and online politics collide in the case of Belarus, my home country, I do detect a certain triumphalism about online politics among the younger generation. But this has proved no more than utopian dreaming: No angry tweets or text messages, no matter how eloquent, have been able to rekindle the democratic spirit of the masses, who, to a large extent, have drowned in a bottomless reservoir of spin and hedonism, created by a government that has read its Huxley. When most Belarusians use the Web to gorge on free entertainment on YouTube and LiveJournal, seeking solace from the dreadful political realities of the real world, politicizing requires more than just Why Kierkegaard Hates Slacktivism 203 sending them requests to join antigovernment Facebook groups, no matter how persuasive those are. When the same group of activists used their Facebook know-how to launch similar anti-Chavez protests in Venezuela in September 2009, expecting up to sixty million people to join the protests all over the globe, only a few thousand actually showed up (that Chavez launched a smart propaganda campaign and countered with "grassroots" protests of his own did not help either). Whenever Hillary Clinton touts the power of social networking to change the world and David Miliband, her former British counterpart, speaks of "civilian surge" and muses on how new media can help "fuel the drive for social justice," one should scrutinize those claims closely. While it may be true that new forms of activism are emerging, they may be eroding rather than augmenting older, more effective forms of activism and organizing. In fact, these American sanctions, administered predominantly by the Department of Treasury and Department of Commerce, far away from the cyber-utopian offices of the State Department, have hurt the development of the Iranian Internet as much as the brutal crackdowns of the Iranian police. All these services (and many more) were subject to a rather byzantine set of restrictions imposed by the U. Most Iranian opposition groups have a hard time finding an American company willing to host their websites; those who have more luck with European or Asian firms cannot easily pay for them, as U. Furthermore, most technologies that feature encryption are subject to a complex set of special export regulations, waivers, and licenses. American diplomats eventually realized that the current sanctions regime "is having an unintended chilling effect on the ability of companies such as Microsoft and Google to continue providing essential communications tools to ordinary Iranians," as a State Department representative put it in a letter sent to the Senate six months after the Iranian protests. In March 2010 the Treasury agreed to make limited amendments to its regulations, allowing the export of "publicly-available mass market online services. Not surprisingly, some of the tools that make it to Iran are backed by people and organizations that are more successful in pressuring the U. In March 2010, after a publicity-heavy campaign in the media, a technology called Haystack was granted one such license. They got mesmerized by the pictures coming out of Tehran and wanted to help by finding a way to give Iranians access to banned websites. Thus, they designed Haystack-a technology that would not only pierce through the firewalls but would also make it seem as if its users were browsing innocuous sites like weather. Austin Heap, the public face of Haystack who quickly became a media darling, kept boasting that his software was not only very effective but also perfectly secure. Such claims were impossible to verify, as no one could evaluate Haystack: Its website contained several "Donate! In August 2010 Newsweek published an approving profile of Haystack in which its founder got most of the limelight. Given that it was meant to be used by Iranian dissidents, such concerns were justified. A few hours of testing revealed that using Haystack in Iran was extremely unsafe, as the software left digital traces that the Iranian government could use to identify its users. As it turned out, Haystack only had a few dozen testers in Iran-a far cry from 5,000 users that Austin Heap claimed in March 2010. By mid-September 2010 testing of Haystack in Iran was halted, while everyone working on the Haystack project-including its high-profile advisory board- resigned. How many Iranians would learn that Haystack violated many of the good practices that an ideal anticensorship tool should aspire to when the U. Many Iranian users may be no more sophisticated about such matters than American journalists who chose to pen admiring reviews of Haystack. Differences between various circumvention technologies are difficult to grasp for nontechnologists; many may mistakenly believe that Haystack is safer than it really is simply because the U. Clearly, the way in which the review process works currently is flawed, and some may even say dangerous.

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Thus, as far as distraction is concerned, the Internet has boosted the power of the Huxley-inspired dictatorships. YouTube and Facebook, with their bottomless reservoirs of cheap entertainment, allow individuals to customize the experience to suit their tastes. When Philip Roth was warning the Czechs of the perils of commercial television, he was also suggesting that it could make a revolution like the one in 1989 impossible. Ironically, the Czechs had been lucky to have such hapless apparatchiks running the entertainment industry. Previously, boredom was one of the few truly effective ways to politicize the population denied release valves for channeling their discontent, but this is no longer the case. In a sense, the Internet has made the entertainment experiences of those living under authoritarianism and those living in a democracy much alike. The only difference is that the Czechs already had a democratic revolution, the results of which, luckily for them, were made irreversible when the Czech Republic joined the European Union. Meanwhile, the Belarusians were not as lucky; the prospects of their democratic revolution in the age of YouTube look very grim. Besides, YouTube entertainment is free of charge-unless dictators make secret donations to Hollywood-so the money saved on producing boring state entertainment can now be diverted to other budget lines. Would dictators ever have allowed YouTube in their countries if anyone had asked them? The Huxleyan dimension of authoritarian control has mostly been lost on policymakers and commentators, who, thanks to the influence of such critics of modern capitalism as Herbert Marcuse and Theodor Adorno, are mostly accustomed to noticing it only in their own democratic societies. Such bland glorification of those living under authoritarianism will inevitably lead to bad policies. If the ultimate Western objective is inciting a revolution or at least raising the level of political debate, the truth is that providing people with tools to circumvent censorship will be nearly as effective as giving someone with no appreciation of modern art a one-year pass to a museum. In addition, Western governments and foundations will always find ways to politicize the locals from the outside, even if it involves fueling ethnic or religious tensions, a foolproof way to spark hatred in the age of YouTube. Thus, if only to maintain power over those who have preserved the ability to think for themselves, some Orwellian elements of political control will need to be present. Despite the reductionist models that have made many in the West believe that information can destroy authoritarianism, information also plays an instrumental role in enabling propaganda, censorship, and surveillance, the three main pillars of Orwell-style authoritarian control. The decentralized nature of the Internet may have made comprehensive censorship much harder, but it may have also made propaganda more effective, as government messages can now be spread through undercover government-run blogs. The opportunity to cheaply encrypt their online communications may have made "professional" activists more secure, but the proliferation of Web 2. The danger here, of course, is that Western leaders might, once again, frame the solutions in intimately familiar Cold War terms, where the default response to the censorship practices of the Soviet Union was to blast even more information through the likes of Radio Free Europe. The strategy behind the existence of Radio Free Europe and other similar broadcasting services during the Cold War was relatively straightforward. By funding more radio broadcasts, Western policymakers wanted to ensure that authoritarian propaganda would be countered, if not weakened; the draconian system of censorship would be undermined; and more listeners would doubt the central premises of communism as a result. With technologies like the radio, it was relatively easy to grasp how certain inputs produced certain outputs. Thus, when the Soviet authorities were jamming its radio stations, the West reacted by turning up the volume-in part because, being in charge of all the programming, it was confident that exposure to its broadcasts would have the desired effect of politicizing the masses. There is no such certainty about the Internet; the West has far less command over it as an instrument than it did in the case of radio. The Internet is a much more capricious technology, producing side effects that can weaken the propaganda system but enhance the power of the surveillance apparatus or, alternatively, that can help to evade censorship but only at the expense of making the public more susceptible to propaganda. The Internet has made the three information pillars of authoritarianism much more interconnected, so Western efforts to undermine one pillar might ruin its efforts to do something about the other two. Take one example: While it is tempting to encourage everyone to flock to social networking sites and blogs to avoid the control of the censors, it would also play into the hands of those in charge of surveillance and propaganda. The more connections between activists it can identify, the better for the government, while the more trust users have in blogs and social networks, the easier it is to use those networks to 84 the Net Delusion promote carefully disguised government messages and boost the propaganda apparatus. The only way to avoid making painful mistakes and strengthening authoritarianism in the process of promoting Internet freedom is to carefully examine how surveillance, censorship, and propaganda strategies have changed in the Internet era. Many Western observers still imagine authoritarian states to be populated by hyperactive doubles of Arthur Koestler-smart, uncompromising in the face of terror, eager to take on existential risks in the name of freedom-while being governed by an intractable array of ridiculous Disney characters-stupid, distracted, utterly uninterested in their own survival, and constantly on the verge of group suicide. Struggle and opposition are the default conditions of the former; passivity and incompetence are the default condition of the latter.

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I note that in Russian language, any type of plant is also called agrarian culture. As an independent concept, "culture" appeared in the works of the German lawyer and historian Samuel Pufendorf (16321694). Adelung used the term "culture" in his 1782 book, the Experience of the Cultural History of the Human Generation. Kant sees the rapid development of civilization and excitedly notes its distance from culture (in my opinion, from the inner-true culture). The reason for this, obviously, is the corresponding level of development of productive forces, the proximity of the language, the commonality of everyday culture, and the quality of life (4). But, some researchers say that the traditions and customs of different ethnic groups, religions, and population groups have a significant impact on their economic success. According to another German philosopher, Max Weber, any change in the economic environment is initially met with resistance by the masses. In this regard, religion plays a major role and it is considered one of the main factors in the development of capitalist society. Another brilliant figure in world economics, the German Karl Marx, considered religion to be a side effect of production relations. Hungarian origin, Canadian-American economist Carl Polani says that religion and culture restrict market laws. One of the first economic studies to look at culture as an independent factor was accomplished in 1958 by a prominent American scholar, a public administration expert Edward Banfield. He proved that the low growth rates of different economies depended on the different cultural systems formed in these countries. Historian and economist David Landes has proved that the prosperity of the national economy is directly related to the characteristics of its citizens, such as thrift, diligence, perseverance, honesty, patience. But, xenophobia, religious intolerance and corruption cause to poverty and poor economic development. Italian economist Guido Tabellini analyzed the level of education and the quality of political institutions in 69 European regions. According to Karl Marx, current technology determines the dominant culture in society. Economists Luigi Guiso, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales believe that culture has a direct impact on the economy. They prove that in the long term, the economic system and production relations shape the culture of society itself. The connection of culture with science As the Azerbaijani poet Mahammad Fuzuli said, science stands at the root of culture: Poetry without science becomes a baseless wall, A baseless wall becomes unreliable in a result. Forms of culture According to the origin: · Elite · People · mass Depending on social groups: · dominant, · subculture (example: sports or music fans), · counterculture - brought to science by the American sociologist T. I note that it is known that Steve Jobs has a tendency to counterculture - sympathy for hippies. According to Parsons, production in society performs the function of a man, culture is a woman. According to communist ideologues, under communism, society would be ruled by morality, not law. According to experts, the risks of future professional decline in employment will bypass the creative field. An economy based on national culture and constantly fed by its development will be sustainable. Former President of Azerbaijan, national leader Heydar Aliyev said: "I am not a supporter of the cult of personality, but no society can live without personality. The beginning of the book is read, the work is destroyed due to its lack of culture, and the author is asked that if he is not ashamed of his family members for publishing such a book. In the process of selecting of a profession, we are increasingly faced with great difficulty on the part of young people to carry out educational, formative and professional options. Based on the Bologna process and the purpose of improving the employability of graduates, professional guidance has become a quality factor in college education. The representative sample was configured by 212 finalist students, (50,9% of the student population), distributed by 18 courses in five different university departments. The guidance received by the students is characterized as being essentially informative and focused on academic and professional issues.


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